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Clin. Neuro Class 1

Name the parts of the brain. 1. cerebrum 2. cerebellum 3. brainstem
Cerebellum-a.k.a. = telencephalon
What makes up the CNS? 1. Brian 2. Spinal Cord
Name the parts of the cerebrum. 1. Cortex 2. Diencephalon
What is the composition of white matter? 1. mostly axons
The axons have two types of tracts? 1. Descending 2. Ascending
What are the names for the descending tracts? (white matter) 1. column 2. fasciculus 2. funiculus 3. lemniscus 3. peduncle 4. tract
What is the location of white matter in the spinal cord? cerebrum? Spinal cord- periphery Cerebrum- deep
What is the composition of grey matter? cell bodies and dendrites
What are clusters of cell bodies called in the CNS? PNS? CNS- nuclei PNS- ganglia
What type of neurons are found in the grey matter? 1. projecting (long) 2. interneurons
What is the location of grey matter in the Spinal cord and brainstem? cortex and cerebellum? SC and Br. Stem- deep Cortex and cerebellum- surface
Most sensory pathway ________ at some level of the nervous system. cross
Most motor pathways cross as they ________. descend
Most deficits manifest themselves __________ to the lesion. contralateral
What is the exception for contralateral manifestation of a lesion? cerebellum
Rostral= toward the nose
Caudal= toward the tail
The telencephalon is at a _______ degree angle to the spinal cord and brainstem. 100
Name the two cell types found in the nervous system. 1. Neurons 2. Glia
Number of neurons? glia? Neurons= 20 billion Glia= 39 billion
Name of neurons classified by shape. 1. Multipolar 2. Pseudounipolar 3. Bipolar
Bipolar neurons are special to? Sense organs, eg.) olfactory, vision, and hearing
Names of neurons classified by connection. 1. sensory 2. motor 3. interneurons
Define sensory neuron. receives information from a receptor
Define motor neuron. sends information to muscles or glands
What neurons make up the majority? interneurons (99%)
Neuroglia is ________ _________ nerve glue
T/F There is a lot of connective tissue in the CNS. F
Glia help to maintain ________ _______ and _________ in the CNS 1. electrolyte balance 2. homeostasis
Name the three types of glia. 1. Macroglia 2. Microglia 3. Schwann Cells
Name the two types of Macroglia. 1. astocytes 2. oligodendrocytes
Astrocytes have _________. neurotransmitters
What is the main function of oligodendrocytes. Myelinate neurons of the CNS
Astrocytes have __________ end feet. perivascular
Astocytes may be involved in the ________ of _________. transport of nutrients
Beneath the pia astrocytes form what? a barrier between what? 1. glial membrane 2. cerebral spinal fluid and the brain
After injury astrocytes form what? a glial scar
What are the two types of astrocytes? 1. fibrous (white matter) 2. protoplasmic (grey matter)
Glioblastoma= fast growing astrocytic tumor
Astrocytoma= Slow growing astrocytic tumor
Most intracranial tumors are ________. gliomas
The cell bodies of oligodendrocytes are _______ and have _______ cytoplasm. dense; little
What produces myelin sheaths for the CNS? oligodendrocytes
One oligodendrocyte gives off processes to myelinate segments of up to _________ different axons. 15
What are smaller than macroglia? microglia
Name glia that are normally inactive. microglia
What happen to microglia after injury? activated
Microglia change into __________ after injury and what is their function? macrophage, phagocytize
What is the glial cell for the PNS? Schwann
What is the function of the Schwann cell? 1. myelinate on segment of an axon 2. support smaller, unmyelinated axons
What is the difference between the PNS and CNS 1. PNS myelinated by Schwann cells 2. CNS- myelinated by Oligodendrocytes
What is the difference in re-growth of the CNS and PNS? 1. CNS- regrowth unlikely 2. PNS- Schwann cells have regrowth factor
When do Schwann cells begin to myelinate rootlets? immediately outside the spinal cord
Peripheral nerves are made of axons of _______, ________, and _______ neurons. 1. sensory 2. postganglionic sympathetic 3. motor
T/F All Cranial nerves are part of the CNS. F
What CN is an extension of the CNS? Why? 1. Optic nerve 2. myelinated by oligodendrocytes
What CN contains parsympathetic autonomic fibers? III, VII, IX, X
Proteins are synthesized for _______ or _______ use. intrinsic or extrinsic
What determines which protein will be syntehsized? DNA
What proteins are specific to certain cells? 1. neurotransmitters 2. receptors
What proteins are common to all cells? proteins involved in membranes, cytoskeletons, etc.
Describe the synthesis of proteins for export. 1. RER via RNA tranlation 2. packeage in golgi in vesicles 3. transported to membrane
Describe the synthesis of proteins for intrinsic use. synthesized on free ribosomes
Intrinsic proteins= cytoskeleton, ion channels, receptors, second messenger systems, proteins that support the dendrites and spines
What is the function of the cytoskeleton? 1. support the neuron 2. hold receptors in place 3. transport substances
Name three types of filaments found in the cytoskeleton and their funciton. 1. microtubules- transport 2. microfilaments- support body 3. neurofilaments- support axon
Transport in the cytoskeleton happens in what directions? anterogradely and retorgradely
What can affect the transport mechanisms in a negative way? neuropathies
Created by: 696592119
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