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AP Psych Unit 2

brains

TermDefinition
accident case study study brain damage, unreliable
acetylcholine stimulates skeletal muscles
action potential release of neural impulse
adrenal glands glands on the kidneys
adrenal medulla releases epinephrine, norep, stress
adrenal cortex stress reactions, salt intake, sex hormones
afferent (sensory neurons) from senses to spinal cord
agonist mimics/enhances effect of NT
alcohol agonist to GABA
all or none fashion neuron either fires or doesn't
alzheimer's too much glutamate
amygdala fear response
antagonist blocks effect of NT
auditory association area interprets audio
autonomic nervous system (ANS) part of PNS, controls automatic functions
autopsy dissect brains of dead to map structure
axon carries messages to other cells
axon hillock axon closest to soma
axon terminal end of axon, communicates with other nerve cells
behaviorism personality is a set of habits
behaviorism, humanism, SCT seek to explain personality
broca's aphasia cannot produce words, halting speech
broca's area left frontal lobe, production of speech
CAT X-ray "slices", shows brain damage
cingulate cortex cognitive tasks (attention, words, memory)
central nervous system (CNS) brain and spinal cord
corpus callosum connects left and right hemisphere
cortex outermost part of brain, wrinkled
corticalization the increase in wrinkling as brain increases in size
CT computed tomography
curare causes paralysis, antagonist to Ach
DBS deep brain stimulation, uses electrodes
dendrite receive message from other cells
dopamine control of movement, pleasure
parkinsons too little dopamine
schizophrenia too much dopamine
DTI uses MRI to image white matter, investigate disorders
EEG electroencephalogram, uses discs on scalp to map brain waves
efferent (motor neurons) from spinal cord to muscles and glands
endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
endorphins pain-controlling neuropeptide
enzymatic degradation structure of neurotransmitter is altered so it cannot act
ERP study different stages of cognitive processing
ESB stimulates brain with electricity, milder than lesioning
excitatory causes neuron to fire
fMRI functional examination of brain areas
frontal lobe front of brain, higher mental functions
Gaba-amniobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory NT, calms anxiety, alcohol
gender differences stereotyped thinking about gender
glands organs that secrete chemicals
glia (glial cells) various functions, support neurons
glutamate learning, memory, develop nervous system
grey matter outer areas of brain, unmyelinated axons
hemisphere strength people are whole-brained
hippocampus long-term declarative memories, in temporal lobe
hormones chemicals secreted by endocrine gland
humanism what makes people uniquely human (self-actualization)
hypothalamus controls the pituitary, ultimate regulator of hormones
identity versus role confusion the psychosocial crisis faced by teens
inhibitory causes neuron to stop firing
left hemisphere processes information in a sequence, controls right hand
lesioning deliberately destroys brain cells to test the result
man's communication style "report"
medial prefrontal cortex decision making, learning, memory
MEG uses magnetic fields to map brainwaves, identify areas of brain activation
mirror neurons fires when a person performs an action or observes an action
motor cortex control movements of voluntary muscles
motor pathway part of SNS, messages from CNS to muscles
MRI magnetic resonance, creates 3D image
MRI spectroscopy estimate concentration of specific chemicals and NT in brain
myelin sheath speeds up neural messages
neuropeptide can serve as NT, hormone, influence NT
neurotransmitters found in synaptic vesicles, has effect on next cell
norepinephrine arousal, mood
occipital lobe back of brain, visual processing
OCEAN five factor trait model
oligodendrocytes produce myelin for brain and spinal cord, cannot regen
orbitofrontal cortex emotional processing, decision making
ovary/testis (gonads) regulates some sexual behavior
pancreas regulates blood sugar in the body
insulin and glucagon released by pancreas
diabetes too little insulin
hypoglycemia too much insulin
parasympathetic division part of ANS, eat-drink-and-rest
parathyroid next to thyroid, regulates calcium levels
parietal lobe top-back of brain
personality way individual thinks, acts, feels
PET uses radioactive sugar to detect brain activity
pituitary gland below hypothalamus, controls all other endocrine glands
peripheral nervous system (PNS) the rest of the nervous system (not brain or spinal cord)
prefrontal cortex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making
primary auditory cortex temporal lobe, processes auditory information
primary visual cortex occipital lobe, processes visual information
receptor sites proteins that allow only particular molecules of a certain shape to fit into it
resting potential when the neuron is not firing, cell negative at rest
reuptake neurotransmitters are taken back into vesicles
right hemisphere global processing, controls the left hand, holistic
schwann cells produce myelin for the rest of the body, can regenerate
sensory pathway part of SNS messages from senses to CNS
serotonin sleep, mood, anxiety
low serotonin depression
social cognitive theory external stimuli, response patterns, cognitive shape personality
soma neuron cell body, sustains
somatic nervous system (SNS) voluntary muscles
somatosensory cortex in parietal lobe, processes info from skin, "upside-down"
spatial neglect damage to parietal right hemisphere, cannot recognize objects in left visual field
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) measures brain blood flow, better than PET
sympathetic division part of ANS, fight-or-flight
synapse fluid-filled space between axon terminal and dendrite
synaptic plasticity ability of synapses to strength over time
transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) changes excitability of cortical neurons below scalp electrodes
temperament behavior and emotional characteristics established at birth
temporal lobe audio, language, memory, behind temples
thalamus relays sensory information to proper areas of cortex
threshold of excitation level of energy needed for neural impulse
thyroid gland neck, regulates growth and metabolism
transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS/rTMS magnetic fields stimulate neurons in targeted area of cortex
trait theorists seek to describe personality
visual association cortex occipital lobe, understands visual information
wernicke's aphasia using the wrong words (stroke patients)
wernicke's area understand meaning of words
white matter fiber tracts, myelinated
woman's communication style "relate"
medulla life-sustaining functions
pons coordinate movements on left and right
reticular formation (RF) attention, alertness, arousal
cerebellum sitting upright, reflexes, fine motor functions
Created by: rockygb