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PSYC 1200- 7.2

TermDefinition
Declarative/ Explicit memory memories that involves conscious minds; can be described verbally
what does Declarative/ Explicit memory include? knowledge about general information (recognizing the face of a man in the dollar bill) and specific happenings in life (ex. answering where you went for lunch)
Declarative/ Explicit memory memories that involves conscious minds; can be described verbally
Non-declarative/ Implicit memory memory for previously learned skills and association that guide thoughts, and actions automatically and unconsciously
what does Declarative/ Explicit memory include? knowledge about general information (recognizing the face of a man in the dollar bill) and specific happenings in life (ex. answering where you went for lunch)
example of declarative memory performing to demonstrate is easy, but hard to explain how to do through talking about it.
Non-declarative/ Implicit memory memory for previously learned skills and association that guide thoughts, and actions automatically and unconsciously
episodic memory memory for specific, autobiographical vents in life
example of declarative memory performing to demonstrate is easy, but hard to explain how to do through talking about it.
example of episodic memory remembering when you last went to a movie
episodic memory memory for specific, autobiographical vents in life
semantic memory general knowledge about the world that does not involve accessing details of any particular life experiences
example of episodic memory remembering when you last went to a movie
semantic memory general knowledge about the world that does not involve accessing details of any particular life experiences
example of semantic memory knowing the difference between an elf and a leprechaun
what does the neurological patient, Kaicy, have impairment on? system that represents episodic memories, but symantic memory system was not impaired
procedural memory (classically conditioned responses) knowledge about how to perform actions (ex. dance routines) (classically conditioned responses)
PHYSICIAN: Claparede the first time he met a woman with an amnesia, he stick a pin on his hand, in order to poke her. The following day, she wasn't able to recognize Claparede but when he offered to shake her hand, she refused to shake it without knowing why.
priming involves an unconscious influence of an experience on subsequent thoughts or behaviours
what does Claparede's experiment prove? an experience can alter a person's behaviour without having any memory for the experience
word-stem completion task
procedural memory (classically conditioned responses) knowledge about how to perform actions (ex. dance routines) (classically conditioned responses)
SCIENTIST: Hebb "Cells that fire together, wire together" experiences strengthen the connection between neurons. Hence, changing structure of our brains.
priming involves an unconscious influence of an experience on subsequent thoughts or behaviours
word-stem completion task buying a watermelon at superstore the other day: then once you get home, and see the watermelon, it stimulates a flashback of the things that happened at the grocery store; all because of the neurons that have fired together on that grocery day
SCIENTIST: Hebb "Cells that fire together, wire together" experiences strengthen the connection between neurons. Hence, changing structure of our brains.
consolidation binding together of strong connections between pattern of neural firing that is associated with that experience (to remember an event over a long period of time
Long-term potentiation when neurons across the brain fire at the same time, the bonds between them get stronger. When one or more neurons fire in the future, others will more likely fire as well.
RESEARCHER: H.M. (Molaison) involved with memory neural science, and the development of
example of Long-term potentiation buying a watermelon at superstore the other day: then once you get home, and see the watermelon, it stimulates a flashback of the things that happened at the grocery store; all because of the neurons that have fired together on that grocery day
consolidation binding together of strong connections between pattern of neural firing that is associated with that experience (to remember an event over a long period of time
RESEARCHER: H.M. (Molaison) involved with memory neural science, and the development of theoretical model of human memory
anterograde amnesia inability to remember any events occuring after some brain-altering experience (but can
Hippocampus in the lymbic system; critical for the formation of new memories
what structure of the brain strengthens neural connections and enables retention of declarative memories? Hippocampus
retrograde amnesia impairment in remembering experiences that occurred for some period of time before the brain trauma or surgery
example of retrograde amnesia when a person gets into a car accident, the are unable to remember the last few moments that occurred prior to their accident
what factors do forgetting and remembering depend on? factors present at encoding and retrieval
rote learning merely repeating information over and over with a goal of remembering for a long term; but not actively doing it
craik and watkin's study the amount of time repeating the words had no effect on the likelihood of remembering them
maintenance rehearsal supports keeping information active in working memory; prolonging exposure to information by repeating it. Poor way of transferring information to LTM
mindless repetition and rote learning maintenance rehearsal
elaborative rehearsal thinking about the information we want to remember later in as many different ways as possible at the level of meaning.
shallow processing thinking about the appearance of the word
example of shallow processing recognizing the capital letters and the spelling of the word
intermediate processing thinking about what the word sounds like
deep processing thinking about the meaning of the word
example of intermediate processing Showing the word : forest answering the question: "does FOREST rhyme with 'florist'?"
example of deep processing Showing the word : ANTLER answering the question: "is ANTLER related to a deer?"
in the chart, which level of processing were participants more successful in remembering information? Deep processing
self-reference effect thinking about the information in a way that relates to ourselves
survival processing thinking about information in a way that relates to personal survival
recognition identifying something (object, person) as a thing that we have encountered or experienced before
recall requires bringing to mind details about a previous experience
example of recall? listing the names of all people in your yearbook
example of recognition identifying the names of the students by showing pictures, in your yearbook
retrieval cues hints of certain memories that allows you to have a flashback when you see a certain object that represents that particular event of your past
example of retrieval cues thinking about an Easter worksheet back in Grade 5 might cue a memory for unfortunate creative deviation from the assignment
encoding specifity principle degree of match between the current situation and the event we try to remember
context dependent memory remembering your last time at the zoo, is easier if you are at the zoo, than when you are not
context dependent forgetting occurs when a mismatch occurring at encoding vs. occurring at retrieval, impairs a success in remembering
context dependent remembering (reinstatement effect) when you return to original location and the memory suddenly comes back
state-dependent learning when one's internal state at the time of encoding, matches their internal state at the time of retrieval
experiment done in state-dependent learning being under the influence of marijuana will obviously have negative effects on one's health. But in an experiment, participants were able to encode more information when they are given marijuana prior to being given a task to remember a word list
experiences that are emotional can be more memorable since they motivate more ______. elaborative rehearsal
what do emotional reactions after learning information enhance? successful remembering of information
mood-dpendent memory indicates that people remember better if their mood at retrieval, matches their mood at encoding
what are the limitations of mood-dpendent memory it has small effect on recognition memory; and larger effects on recall-based tests.
influence of emotion can be dramaric when _____. the stimuli is emotional in nature
weapon focus tendency to focus on a weapon at the expense of peripheral information including the identity of person holding the weapon
when is emotion's largest influence? consolidation of information (STM to LTM)
study of Nielson and Colleagues the group who watched the more emotional (performing surgery) recalled more word lists.
what did study of Nielson and Colleagues prove? the emotional arousal associated with the video helped with the consolidation of the word list.
example of weapon focus when the victim was presented a gun, the victim was focusing on the gun and not the criminal's face
flashbulb memories extremely detailed memory about an event and the condition surrounding how one learned about the event
what are the reasons for flashbulb memories? events are so shocking, that details are a oermanent mental photograph
encoding transforming sensory and eprceptual information intomemory traces
retrieval accessing memorized information in order to make use of it in the present moment
what is storage? the time and manner to which information is retained between encoding and retrieval
in terms of brain parts, how can they explain context-dependent memory? there are increased activity in hippocampus and parts of the prefrontal cortex (right frontal lobes).
what region ofthe brain is known for retrieval processes? right frontal lobes
example of context dependent remembering when you comeback to your room and think "Oh Yeah, Tape!"
mnemonic techniw=que to improve memory for specific information
method of loci a mnemonic that connects words to be remembered to locations along a familiar path
example of method of loci if you need to remember to buy milk and noodles, and you pass by a garbage bin and picture it as hacing lots of noodles litter
examples of first-letter technique "Bad Students Get Low C's"
dual coding when information is stored in more than one form
Created by: corrp