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Ch10. Dose limits

RAD Protection/Biology. Chap 10. Dose limits

QuestionAnswer
Evaluates info on biologic effects and provides radiation protection guidance through general recommendations on occupational and public dose limits Internal Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)
Reviews regulations formulated by the ICRP and decides ways to include those recommendations in U.S. radiation protection criteria. National Council on Rad Protection and Measurements (NCRP)
Evaluates human and environment exposure and derives risk assessments from data and research; provides info to organizations such as the ICRP. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR)
Reviews studies of biologic effect and risk assessment and provides the info to organizations such as the ICRP. National Academy of Sciences/ National Research Council Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiaiton (NAS/NRC-BEIR)
Since its inception in _______, ICRP has been the leading organization responsible for providing radiation protection guidance. 1928
NCRP, chartered by congress in _____, reviews the recomendations formulated by the ICRP. 1964
UNSCEAR, established in _____, evaluates exposures from a variety of sources such as radioactive materials, radiation-producing machines, radiation accidents. 1955
NAS/NRC-BEIR is another advisory group, this group formulated the ____ BEIR V Report. 1990
Recommendations for EfD limits and EqD limits are made by the ____, _____, _____, and ____. ICRP, NCRP, UNSCEAR, NAS/NRC-BEIR
U.S. regulatory agencies that enforce the standards that have been determined? Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Agreement States, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formerly known as what? Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)
________ is a federal agency that has the authority to control the possession, use, and production of atomic energy in the interest of national security. NRC
This agency (NRC) has the power to enforce radiation protection standards, but does not regulator or inspect x-ray imaging facilities. T or F? True
What is the main function of the NRC? to oversee the nuclear energy industry.
_____ publishes its rules/regulations in Title 10 of the U.S code of Federal Regulations, and enters into written agreements with state governments that permit the state to license & regulate the use of radioisopes. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
______ enforce radiation protection regulations through their respective health departments Agreement States
_______ Facilitates the development and enforcement of regulations pertaining to the control of radiation in the environment Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
_____ Conducts radiation control program, regulating the design and manufacture of electronic products FDA
___ Functions as a monitoring agency in places of employment, predominantly in industry OSHA
NARM? Naturally occurring and/or accelerator produced materials
NRC publishes rules/regulations in Part _ of _______. Therefore the abbreviation 10 CFR 20 is used. 20 of Title 10.
The NRC has authority to enter into written contracts with state governments. What do these agreements permit? Permit the contracting state to undertake the responsibility of licensing and regulating the use of radioisotopes and other radioactive materials.
The difference between agreement states and nonagreement states? Agreement states: they are responsible for enforcing radiation protection regulations through their respective health departments. NON: both the state and the NRC enforce by sending agents to health care facilities.
EPA was established December 2nd, ____. 1970.
The ____ facilitates the development and enforcement of regulations pertaining to the control of radiation in the environment. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
___ directs federal agencies, oversees the general area of environmental monitoring, has authority for specific areas such as determining the action level for radon. EPA
The NRC mandates that a _______ be established for the facility. This committee provides guidance for the program and facilitates its ongoing operation. Radiation Safety Committee (RSC)
Who implements and enforces the policies of the radiation safety program? RSO
A RSO is normally a.... physicist, radiologist, or other qualified individual.
Who reviews and maintains radiation monitoring records for all personnel and ensures that all persons and adequately protected from unnecessary radiation? RSO
In what year did U.S. congress pass the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act? 1968
What is the 1968 Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act? To protect the public from hazards of unnecessary radiation resulting from electronic products such as TV's.
CDRH? Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Used to be Bureau of Radiologic Health (BRH)
The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) is responsible for.... conducting an ongoing electronic product radiation control program. Sets up standards for the manufacturers, installation, maintenance of machines. (also asses biologic effects, evaluates emissions from products, researches to reduce)
_______ assesses the biologic effect of radiation, evaluates emissions from electronic products, and conducts research to reduce exposure. Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH)
When did the code of standards for x-ray equipment go into effect? August 1, 1974
What are the (5) provisions included in the standards for diagnostic x-ray equipment? PBL, minimal permanent filtration, ability to duplicate exposures at any given mAs/kVp, "beam on" indicators, manual backup timers for AEC.
In _____, the ____________ put forth the principle of ALARA. 1954, National Committee on Radiation Protection (NCRP).
What is NCRP report No. 116? Limitation of exposure to ionizing radiation, Report enunciates the goal of rad protection... "prevent the occurance of serieous radiation-induced conditions and to reduce stochastic effects to a degree that is acceptable in relation to the benefits.."
______ effects are biologic somatic effects that can be directly related to the dose received. Deterministic
________ effects exhibit a threshold dose below which the response does not normally occur and above which the severity increases as dose increases. deterministic
Deterministic effects may be early, such as: Skin redness, Decrease in white blood cell count, Epilation (loss of hair)
Early and late deterministic somatic effects have a high probability of occurring when entrance radiation doses exceed 2 Gyt
The frequency of occurrance of high dose deterministic effects follows what kind of curve? sigmoidal with a threshold
_____ effects are mutational, nonthreshold, randomly occurring biologic somatic effects. Stochastic
Cancer and genetic alterations are examples of what effects? stochastic
Stochastic responses may be demonstrated with use of what kind/s of curves? Linear and linear-quadratic.
embryo-fetus, incidence of severe mental retardation for fetal doses greater than approx _____. 0.4 Sv
____ or ____ weighting factos indicates the ratio of the risk of stoachastic effects attributable to irradiation of a given organ to the total risk when the whole body is uniformly exposed. organ or tissue
Organ/tissue Wt: bone surface and skin 0.01
Organ/tissue Wt: bladder, breast, liver, esophagus, thyroid.... 0.05
Organ/tissue Wt: Red bone marrow, colon, lung, stomach 0.12
Organ/tissue Wt: gonads 0.2
Limit for any eduction and training exposures of individuals under the age of 18 EfD of 1 mSv annually
_____ mSv to the crystalline lnes of the eyes and ____ mSv for localized areas of the skin, hands, and feet. 150, 500
Negligible individual dose of ____ mSv/year per source has been set. (below this level a reduction of exposure is unnecessary) 0.01
What is radiation hormesis? beneficial consequence of radiation for populations continuously exposed to moderately higher levels of radiation. Theory is not proven.
Occupational exposure: Effective dose limits- Annually? Cumulative? annual- 50 mSv. Cumulative- 10 mSv x age
Occupational exposure: Equivalent dose annual limits for tissue- Lens of eye? Skin, hands, feet? Eye- 150 mSv. Skin hands and feet- 500 mSv. (public is 15 and 50)
Public exposures: Effective dose limit, continuous or frequent? Effective dose limit, infrequent exposure? continuous- 1 mSv. Infrequent- 5 mSv
Education/training exposures annual: Effective dose limit? 1 mSv
Embryo fetus exposures: Equivalent dose limit? 1 mSv
Public exposures annual: equivalent dose limits for tissues: Eye? Skin, hands, feet? Eye- 15 mSv. Hands/feet- 50 mSv. (occupational is 150 and 500)
______ is used in the description of population or group exposure form low doses of different sources of radation ColEfD
No threshold, severity independant of dose received, cells are modified Stochastic
Threshold, severity directly related to dose received, cells are killed Deterministic
The term linear nonthreshold curve implies that the biologic response to ionizing radiation is: directly proportional to the dose
Radiation-induced cataracts in humans follow a ______ dose-response relationship Nonlinear, threshold
Studies of A-bomb survivors indicate that leukemia has a _____ dose-response relationship to radiation Linear, nonthreshold
A _____ effect increases in incidence but not severity as the dose increases. Stochastic
unit of dose equivalent is the Rem
NCRP recommends a monthly EqD limit not exceeding _____ per month to the fetus, and a limit during the entire pregnancy not to exceed ____. 0.5 mSv, 5.0 mSv
Created by: Zoest35