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Digestive Pathology

QuestionAnswer
volvulus twisting of bowel on itself, causing obstruction. "bird beak" or "coffee bean" appearance, surgical emergency because cutting off blood supply and tissues
small bowel obstruction centrally located, seen as distended loops of bowel filled with gas, bowel proximal to obstruction may be filled with fluid, extent of obstruction determines ease or difficulty of penetration
pyloric stenosis narrowing of the pyloric sphincter
peptic ulcer disease loss of mucous membrane in a portion of the GI system, imaged using barium, looks like a bullseye/crater like appearance, located in pylorus/duodenum regions
large bowel obstruction characterized by massive accumulation of gas proximal to obstruction, absence of gas distal to obstruction, high risk of perforation, extent of obstruction determines ease or difficulty of penetration
irritable bowel syndrome abnormal increase in small and large bowel motility
intussusception prolapse of one segment of bowel into another section of bowel
adynamic/paralytic ileus intestinal obstruction caused by immobility of the bowel; from injury, blood clot, medication side affect
mechanical ileus caused by intestinal mechanical obstruction by tumor, volvulus, intussusception, etc.
esophagitis inflammation of esophageal mucosal lining
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
gastroesophageal reflux GERD contents of stomach back up into the esophagus, causes erosion of lining that can lead to Barrett's esophagus - precancerous condition characterized by ulceration in the esophagus
hiatal hernia protrusion of stomach through the diaphragm, described as sliding, direct, or rolling
esophageal varices varicose veins at distal end of esophagus, associated with alcoholism. patients with cirrhosis and obstructive liver disease may be affected, demonstrated by valsalva maneuver, increase abdominal pressure, looks like rosary beads
diverticulitis inflammation of diverticula; in esophagus, bladder, intestines
Crohn's Disease aka regional enteritis; chronic inflammation of the bowel, sometimes separated by normal segments of bowel, destroys mucosal lining. young persons disease/autoimmune
cholelithiasis condition of having gallstones, harder to penetrate - seen by ultrasound
cancer of colon and rectum leading cause of death from cancer in US, more typical form is 'annular' carcinoma - classic apple core pattern when imaged using barium enema
acute cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder
esophageal atresia abnormal condition characterized by the incomplete development of the esophagus, associated with tracheoesophageal fistula, serious surgical emergency in newborns, right upper lung is most affected
Created by: joannarogers