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Psych 204

What are the side effects of alcohol? -Euphoria -Anxiolytic -stimulant at low doses -Sedative at high doses -Disinhibition -Reduction in motor coordination
How is the metabolism of alcohol different from other drugs? The rate of oxidation is constant over time and does not occur more quickly with a higher blood concentration, unlike other drugs.
Describe the enzymatic breakdown of alcohol. alcohol > +alcohol dehydrogenase > acetaldehyde> +acetaldehyde dehydrogenase > acetic acid
What happens when the two acetaldehyde dehydrogenase genes are homozygous for inactive form? Sever flushing occurs (severe reaction) because acetaldehyde levels remain high.
What are Cyp450 enzymes? They are enzymes that metabolize alcohol and other drugs. Regular alcohol consumption leads to an increase in the number of Cyp450 enzymes.
What are the long term effects of alcohol on tolerance? (Chronic/long-term use) drug disposition tolerance occurs- changes metabolism. Behavior tolerance also occurs
What is the cause of a "hangover"? Residual acetaldehyde in the body Alcohol-induced gastric irritation Rebound drop in blood sugar Excess fluid loss the previous night Toxic effects from congeners
What are delirium tremens? A rebound phenomenon representing a hyper-excitable state of the CNS following the prolonged depressant effects of alcohol.
What are the areas other than the CNS that alcohol effects? The cardiovascular system The renal-urinary system The reproductive system The gastrointestinal system The liver
What is the outcome of alcohol being such a simple molecule? It readily crosses cell membranes , including the blood-brain barrier.
What neurotransmitter(s) does alcohol act on? Glutamate GABA Dopamine The opioid system
What are alcohols effects on Glutamate? Reduces effectiveness at the NMDA receptor Reduces release in the hippocampus In withdraw, release returns to normal but acts on up-regulated NMDA receptors (increased quantity)
What are the effects of alcohol on the GABAergic system? (Acute) Enhances effects at the GABAa receptor allowing Cl- conductance (Chronic) repeated exposure reduces GABAa mediated chloride influx Makes animals more sensitive to the GABA antagonist-due to down regulation Cross tolerance occurs with sedative
What are the effects of alcohol on dopamine? Increased DA in the Mesolimbic pathway
What are alcohols effects on the opioid system? Modulates pain, mood, feeding, reinforcement, response to stress Enhances endogenous opioid activity
What are the effects of the alcohol dependence treating drug Disulfram/Anabuse? The drug inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase thereby increasing the availability of acetaldehyde which leads to negative effects.
What is the effect of nicotine on dopamine? Directly stimulates the flow of DA in the NAc Stimulates release of glutamate which triggers additional release of DA Within a few minutes GABA is inhibited which results in even high levels of DA in the NAc Also blocks MAO
What is the most effective treatment for nicotine dependence? Varenicline(Chantix) which is a nAChR agonist on the alpha 4 and beta 2 receptors It is a full agonist at alpha7 beta3 and beta4
Which receptors does nicotine specifically target? The alpha4 and beta2 binding site on nAChR receptors because they are of high affinity
Why does nicotine (an agonist) cause up-regulation of receptors? As continuous binding occurs, de-sensitization and internalization of receptors occur and in response nicotine up-regulates receptors.
At what age range is the highest rate of cocaine use? 18-25
What are the highest producing countries of the coca plant? Colombia Peru Bolivia
When and by whom was cocaine isolated and purified? In 1860 by Albert Neiman
Describe the manufacture process in making cocaine. Leaves from the coca plant > coca paste (80% cocaine) > converted to hydrochloride and crystallized.
Why can't cocaine be smoked in powder form? Because it breaks down in heat.
Why is cocaine able to pass through the blood-brain barrier? Because it is lipophic
How long is the high and half life of cocaine? High- 30 minutes or less Half life- 30-90 minutes
What happens when cocaine is mixed with alcohol? Cocaethylene is produced, which has a similar biological activity as cocaine but a longer half life leading to increased toxicity.
Why is crack "more" addictive than powder cocaine? Because smoking it effects the brain much faster than powder cocaine or IV use.
Where does cocaine act in the brain? It binds to monoamine transporters and blocks the reuptake of seratonin(5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE).
For which transporter does cocaine have the highest affinity (most strongly bind to)? 5-HT fiollowed by DA and then NE.
What cause cocaine to act as a local anesthetic? The drug blocks the v-gated Na channels thus blocking nerve conduction.
What is the difference between cocaine and amphetamines in reference to the level of DA in the mesolimbic pathway? The intensity and high of cocaine is dependent upon baseline levels of DA activity in the pathway and this is not the case with amphetamines.
Why is the D3 receptor inportant to the use of cocaine? Because a D3 receptor antagonist, such as SB-277011-A blocks the enhanced brain reward produced by cocaine use.
If cocaine has such a small amount of withdrawal symptoms, then why is it so hard to stop? Immediate after effects cause DA levels to descend to below normal levels leading to craving and dysphoria. Also tolerance and sensitization play a role.
How does cocaine effect neuronal growth? Abnormal growth in the dendrites may occur causing them to weave around each other (especially relevant to the anterior cingulated cortex ACC, which involved in learning and attention.
Why do amphetamines have such a potent effect on the DA system? Because their chemical structure is closely related.
What are the differences in symptoms of ampethamine use compared to cocaine? They are more energizing and produce less paranoia Have a higher likelihood of psychotic reactions
Describe the neurotransmitter processing involved with using meth. Rapid release of dopamine Blocks reuptake of dopamine Also releases NE and possibly seratonin Euphoria lasts for 8-24 hours
What is possibly the most serious health problem from chronic meth abuse? Damage to the neurons of several parts of the brain including the frontal cortex, hippocampus and the striatum. Meth actually destroys neurons through apoptosis.
What is the irony of long term use of stimulants in treating ADHD? They increase concentration in the short-term but when given over long periods of time they neither improve school achievement nor reduce behavior problems.
What are the neurotoxic effects of MDMA? Neurons damage is exacerbated by high ambient temp. The rapid release and over-stimulation of serotonin may cause irreversible damage to nerve endings.
Which prescription drugs affect MDMA effects the most? Ritonavir(Norvir)-inhibits multiple CYP450 enzymes MAOI's have been reported to cause death or toxicity in combination. SSRI's nearly fully abolish MDMA effects
What is the function of the Mu opioid receptor (MOR)? Morphine-induced analgesia Positive reinforcement Cardiovascular and respiratory depression, cough control, nausea and vomiting Sensorimotor integration
What is the function of the delta opioid receptor(DOR)? Similar to that of the MOR, more restricted Modulating olfaction, motor integration, reinforcement, cognitive function, spinal and supraspinal analgesia
What are the function of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR)? Very distinct distribution compared to that of MOR and DOR Pain perception, gut motility, dysphoria, water balance, feeding, temp. Control, neuroendocrin function
What are the three families of opioid peptides produced endogenously in the body? Enkephalins Endorphins Dynorphins
What are the three ways endogenous opioids inhibit nerve activity? Postsynaptic inhibition-open K+ channels Axoaxonic inhibition- Close Ca+ channels Presynaptic autoreceptors- reduce transmitter release
Why is co-localization important to opioids? Opioids are neuromodulators of other neurotransmitter systems Their effects would be highly dependent on baseline activation
What are opiates function in the spinal cord? Direct inhibition through release by inhibitory interneurons to block pain signaling in the dorsal horn
What are opiates functions in the midbrain? The the midbrain is electrically stimulated, a profound reduction of pain perception with chronic pain occurs (Disinhibits through blockage of presynaptic GABA release)
What are opiates functions in the cortex? They effect pain perception directly in the cortex Responsible for the emotional component of pain
How does he body react to emotional pain? The body reacts to emotional and physical pain in the same way and release opioids to alter the perception of pain
Do opiates show complete tolerance? Yes, with enough exposure to the same dose it will elicit no subjective high except the removal of withdrawal pain.
Is methadone an agonist, partial agonist, or agonist-antagonist? It is a partial agonist.
What are the two main theories of opiate addiction? The physical addiction-withdrawal is bad enough to guarantee continued use The psychological addiction- "a coping problem"
What is the active ingredient in marijuana? D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Why does marijuana increase appetite? It interacts with peripheral signals, like leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and satiety hormones affecting energy balance and adiposty.
Does the tar from cigarettes or marijuana contain a higher concentration of carcinogens? Marijuana- increasing the risk of bronchitis, chronic cough, and phlegm production. Although cigarettes smokers tend to smoke MORE than marijuana users so overall there is more tar build up
Marijuana receptor (CB1) CB1- metabotropic, it is a G-protein couples receptor, INHIBITORY,, (inhibits cAMP and voltage sensitive Ca++ channels, activates K+ channel) it is located on axon terminal rather than cell body.
Marijuana receptor (CB2) CB2- responds to THC, active mostly in the immune system.
What are the three important cannabinoid drug? Dronabinol- synthetic THC (CB1 agonist). Nailone- THC analog (CB1 agonist). Rimonabant- SR141716 (CB1 antagonist).
What is the body's naturally endogous cannabinoids? Archidonoyl ethanolamide or anandamide. 2-arachidonoilgylcerol (2-AG). They are only produced when needed and not stored, as when there is a rise in Ca+
How does the cannabinoid system interact with the opioid system? Mu opioid antagonists block THC effects on reinforcement by reducing GABA release from interneurons.
Negative side effects of marijuana. THC can suppress LH THC can acutely reduce sperm counts THC can suppress immune function
Where is the CB1 receptor located? On the axon terminal, unlike most other receptors.
Created by: Justin Gibson