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Module 52

The Psychological Therapies

psychotherapy an interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties or wants to achieve personal growth
biomedical therapy the use of prescribed medications or medical procedures that act on a person's physiology to treat psychological disorders
eclectic approach therapists are no locked into one form of psychotherapy, but draw on whatever combination seems best suited to a client's problems
psychoanalysis the therapy developed by Sigmund Freud, attempts to give clients self-insight by bringing into awareness and interpreting previously repressed feelings
resistance the psychoanalytic term for the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden memories (could be shown by hesitation during free association)
interpretation the psychoanalytic term for the analyst's helping the patient to understand resistances and other aspects of behavior, so that the patient may gain deeper insights
transference the psychoanalytic term for a patient's redirecting to the analyst emotions from other relationships
psychodynamic therapy seeks to enhance patients' self-insight into their symptoms by focusing on childhood experiences and important relationships in addition to unconscious forces
insight therapies such as psychodynamic and humanistic therapies aim to increase the person's awareness of underlying motives and defenses
client-centered therapy a humanistic non-directive therapy developed by Carl Rogers, in which growth and self-awareness are facilitated in an environment that offers genuineness, acceptance, and empathy
active listening a non-directive technique of Rogers' client-centered therapy, in which the listener echoes, restates, and seeks clarification of, but does not interpret, clients' remarks
unconditional positive regard refers to the accepting, nonjudgmental attitude that is the basis of client-centered therapy
behavior therapy applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
counterconditioning a category of behavior therapy in which new responses are classically conditioned to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors
exposure therapies treat anxiety by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to things they normally fear and avoid - includes systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy
systematic desensitization a type of exposure therapy in which a state of relaxation is classically conditioned to a hierarchy of gradually increasing anxiety-provoking stimuli (a form of counterconditioning)
virtual reality exposure therapy progressively exposes people to electronic simulations of feared situations to treat their anxiety
aversive conditioning a form of counterconditioning in which an unpleasant state is associated with an unwanted behavior
token economy an operant conditioning procedure in which desirable behaviors are promoted in people by rewarding them with tokens, or positive reinforcers, which can be exchanged for privileges or treats.
cognitive therapy focuses on teaching people new and more adaptive ways of thinking and acting - based on the idea that our feelings and responses to events are strongly influenced by our cognition
rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) a confrontational cognitive therapy that challenges people's illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptions
cognitive-behavioral therapy an integrative therapy that focuses on changing self-defeating thinking (cognitive therapy) and unwanted behaviors (behavior therapy)
group therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals
family therapy views problem behavior as influenced by, or directed at, other members of the individual's family and focuses on relationships and problems among the various members of the family