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Module 42

Trait Theories, Social-Cognitive Theories, and the Self

QuestionAnswer
Psychologists assess a wide range of emotional and behavioral traits by means of what? personality inventories
A highly anxious and insecure personality illustrates the Big Five trait dimension of what? neuroticism
Johnson refuses to take reasonable precautions h is health because he believes good health is just a matter of luck anyway. Johnson's attitude best illustrates what? an external locus of control
What is a trait? a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act
What are personality inventories? associated with the trait perspective, they are questionnaires used to assess personality traits
What is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)? consisting of 10 clinical scales, the most widely researched and clinically used personality inventory
What is an empirically derived test? one developed by testing many items to see which best distinguish between groups of interest
What is the social-cognitive perspective? the result of interactions between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context
What is reciprocal determinism? the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment that shapes personality
What is personal control? refers to the extent to which people perceive control over their environment
What is external locus of control? the perception that your fate is determined by forces not under personal control
What is internal locus of control? the perception that, to a great extent, you control your own destiny
What is self-control? the ability to control impulses and delay gratification
What is learned helplessness? the passive resignation and perceived lack of control that a person or animal develops from repeated exposure to inescapable aversive events
What is positive psychology? the scientific study of optimal human functioning focusing on positive emotions, positive character traits, and enabling institutions.
What is "self" in contemporary psychology? the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions
What is the spotlight effect? the tendency of people to overestimate the extent to which other people are noticing and evaluating their appearance, performance, and blunders
What is self-esteem? refers to an individual's feeling of self-worth
What is self-serving bias? the tendency to perceive oneself favorably
What is narcissism? excessive self-love and self-absorption
James attributes his failing grade in chemistry to an unfair final exam. His attitude exemplifies what? self-serving bias
Nadine has a relatively high level of brain arousal. Trait theorists would probably predict that she is a(n) what? introvert
Isaiah is sober and reserved; Rashid is fun-loving and affectionate. The Eysencks would say that Isaiah _________ and Rashid ___________. is an introvert; is an extravert