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pp 50 - 100

O'Sullivan 2009

QuestionAnswer
What part of the pelvis is commonly fractured when the pelvis is laterally compressed or the person falls from a roof and lands on the feet? acetabulum fracture
What movement(s) does the iliofemoral or "Y" ligament resist? extension
What movement(s) does the ischiofemoral ligament resist? extension and internal rotation
What movement(s) does the pubofemoral ligament resist? abduction
According to the book, does excessive anteversion lead to internal or external rotation of the lower limb? excessive anteversion can lead to internal rotation and a toe-in gait pattern
According to the book, does retroversion lead to internal or external rotation of the lower limb? external rotation
How many degrees is normal anteversion? The femoral neck is usually rotated 15 dgrees anterior to the long axis of the femur
What are the two primary hip flexors? iliacus and psoas major = iliopsoas. flexes hip in open chain ex and tilts pelvis anteriorly during closed chain activities
What are the primary hip extensors? function? hamstring muscles and gluteus maximus. closed chain: getting up from a chair, lifting, stair climbing, running and jumping. open chain: flex knee
What are the primary hip abductors? function? gluteus medius and minimus: stabilize pelvis during stance. abduct femur in open chain ex with helpof TFL and piriformis
What are the primary hip adductors? function? adductor magnus, longus and brevis. contract during swing phase of gait and can assist in extension and rotation of femur
What are the primary hip internal rotators? anterior fibers of gluteus medius and minimus
What are the primary hip external rotators? obturator externus and quadratus femoris
What is the role of hip internal/external rotators? fine tune femoral position during gait and open chain activities
Into what two nerves does the sciatic nerve branch? common peroneal (fibular) and tibial
What is patellofemoral syndrome? abnormal alignment of the tibia and femurcan cause cumulative trauma on the underside of the patella
Between what range of degrees are the MCL and LCL the most effective at restraining varus and valgus forces? full extension and 30 degrees of flexion
What is the effect of knee position on amount of compressive force transmitted through the menisci during weight-bearing? During full knee extension, the menisci transmit 50% of the compressive forces across the knee. The menisci transmit 85% of the compressive forces at 90 degrees of flexion
Which direction do the menisci move during knee flexion/extension? menisci move posteriorly during knee flexion and anteriorly during knee extension. this movement helps distribute synovial fluid over the articular cartilage
are the menisci vascularized throughout? no. the menisci are avascular in their inner 2/3 and partly vascular in their outer 1/3
Do meniscal tears more commonly occur to the medial or lateral meniscus? medial
Is the MCL more taut in internal or external rotation of the tibia? external. opp for LCL
What is the function of the PCL? prevents posterior displacement of tibia and prevents hyperflexion/hyperextension of knee
What ligament is likely to be damaged when apassenger's leg is driven against a dashboard? PCL
What is the role of the ACL? prevents anterior displacement of tibia and prevents knee hyperextension.
what motions would injury ACL? when tibia is driven anteriorly on femur, femur is driven posteriorly on tibia, or knee joint is hyperextened with internal tibial rotation.
What can tightness in the ITB lead to?
When does the most stress on the ACL occur during extension? from 45 - 0 degrees of extension. from 75- 0 degrees, the quadriceps pulls the tibia anteriorly against the ACL
what is the anserine busa? separates the tendons of the sartorisu, gracilis, and semitendinosus muscels from the proximal part of the medial surface of the tibia.
What are the motions of the calcaneus, talus, and tibia during closed chain pronation? calcaneal eversion with plantarflexion and adduction of the talus on the calcaneus. internal tibial rotation.
What is the function of the peroneus (fibularis) longus and brevis in open/closed chain? open chain: evert foot and ankle
What is the function of the quadratus lumborum? stabilizes lmbar spine, unilatrally elevates the ilium and bilaterally assists in forced exhalation and extends the back
Name the extrinsic muscles of the back: superficial muscles: trapezius and latissimus dori
Name the intrinsic muscles of the back: superficial: splenius muscles(capitis and cervicis)
what is the action of the splenius muscles? acting alone: laterally flex and rotate head and neck to same sied
What is the action of the erector spinae? bilat: cause head and vertebral column to extend
what is the action of the transversospinal muscles? bilat: extend and stabilize the spine
Is the articular disc of the TMJ more firmyly attached to the mandible or temporal bone? mandible
Which direction does the head of the mandible slide on the articular tubercle as the mouth opens? the articular disck slides anteriorly against the posterior surface of the tubercle as the mouth opens
How many mm does the mandible open without translation of the condyle? 20-25 mm
What are the two phases in mandibular depression (mouth opening)? phase I: rotation of condyle around the long axis of the condylar heads, takes place in first 10-15 mm before entering phase II
How many mm is functional opening of the mouth? 40 mm
What osteokinetic movements doew lateral excursion of the mandible include? mandible moves laterally in horizontal plane and involves anterior translation on the contralateral side and spin on ipsilateral side
What muscles elevate the mandible for the biting movement? temporalis, masseter and medial ptergoid mm
what muscles protrude/retrude mandible? the lateral and medial pterygoid muscles protrude the mandible and the post fibers of the temporalis mm retrude the mandible
What muscle(s) depresses the mandible? mandibular depression occurs primarily by gravity
What may happen to the disc in the TMJ if the joint structures are strained due to improper closure of the mandible? the disc may then desplace anteriorly and medially
What can happen to the TMJ during yawning or taking a large bite? the TMJ can dislocate anteriorly. contraction of the lateral pterygoid muscles may cause the head of the mandible to dislocate or pass anterior to the articular tubercle. the mandible remains wide open and the person is unable to close it.
What muscles does the musculocutaneous nerve innervate? coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, brachialis
From what spinal cord segment is the musculocutaneous nerve derived? C5, C6
Describe the sensory distribution of the musculocutaneous nerve anterolateral surface of forearm
What movements would one love if the musculocutaneous nerve was damaged? loss of forearm flexion when supinated, weakened supination
From what spinal cord segment is the radial nerve derived? C6,7,8, T1
what muscles does the radial nerve innervate? triceps, anconeus, brachioradialis, supinator, wrist, fingers, and thumb extensors
Describe the sensory distribution of the radial nerve post arm, post forearm, and radial side of post hand
What movements would one lose if the radial nerve was damaged? loss of elbow, wrist, finger, and thumb extension
From what spinal cord segments is the axillary nerve derived? C5,6
What muscles does the axillary nerve innervate? deltoid, teres minor
Describe the sensory distribution of the axillary nerve? lateral arm over lower portion of deltoid
What movements would be lacking if the axillary nerve was damaged? loss of shoulder abduction, weakened external rotation
What muscles does the Median nerve innervate? pronators, wrist and finger flexors on radial side, most thumb muscles
From what spinal cord segment does the median nerve arise? C6,7,8,T1
Describe the sensory distribution of the median nerve palmar aspects of thumg, second, third, and fourth (radial half) fingers
What would you lose if your median nerve was damaged? loss of forearm pronation, thumb opposition, flexion, and abduction
From what spinal cord segments does the ulnar nerve arise? C8, T1
What muscles does the ulnar nerve innervate? flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum frofundus (medial half), interossei, fourth and fifth lumbricals
Describe the sensory distribution of the ulnar nerve fourth finger (medial protion), fifth finger
What would you lose if ulnar nerve was damaged? loss of wrist ulnar deviation, weakened wrist and finger flexion, weakened fourth and fifth finger fleion, loss of thumb adduction, loss of most intrinsics (claw hand)
Created by: lhillard