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pp 1-50

O'Sullivan 2009

What ribs does the scapula cover? Ribs 2-7
Where does a clavicular fracture usually occur? junction of the medial 2/3 and its lateral 1/3; medial to the attachment of the coracoclavicular ligament, especially in children and young adults
Is the acromioclavicular or the coracoclavicular ligament usually involved in impingement? go look it up p 42
What is a separated shoulder? a ligamentous injury to the structure of the AC joint
How many degrees of elevation occur at the glenohumeral joint during shoulder flexion or abduction? 120 degrees of elevation occur at the GH joint
How many degrees of elevation occur at the scapulothoracic articulation during shoulder flexion or abduction? 60 degrees of elevation occur at eh scapulothoracic articulation during shoulder flexion or abduction
How many degrees does the clavicle elevate during the first 90 degrees of shoulder abduction? the clavicle elevates 35-45 degrees at the sternoclavicular joint during the first 90 degrees of shoulder abduction
what two muscles act as primary movers to abduct the arm? deltoid and supraspinatus
When does the supraspinatus muscle act strongly? the supraspinatus acts with the deltoid to abduct the arm and acts strongly when a heavy wight is carried with the arm abducted, carrying a suitcase
Do the trapezius and serratus anterior cause upward or downward rotation of the scapula? the trapezius and serratus anterior cause upward rotation of the scapula during arm elevation
Do the rhomboids, levator scapulae, and pecoralis minor cause downward or upward rotation of the scapula? downward rotation with purposeful shoulder extension, i.e. chopping wood
Do the serratus anterior and pectoralis minor cause scapular protraction or retraction? protraction
Do the rhomboids, middle and lower trapezius cause protraction or retraction of the scapula? retraction
What motion do the upper trapezius and levator scapulae cause on the scapula? they elevate the scapula
what motions do the pectoralis minor and latissimus dorsi cause on the scapula? depression
What artery can be compressed by resting on crutches? Compression of what nerve is the primary cause of 'crutch palsy'?
What nerve innervates the serratus anterior? the long thoracic (C5,6,7)
What is the result of injury to the long thoracic nerve? winging of the scapula
What nerve innervates the levator scapulae and rhomboid muscles? the dorsal scapular ( C5, 6)
What is the result of injury to the dorsal scapular nerve? impaired scapular retraction and downward scapular rotation
what is the result of injury to the suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)? injury to the suprascapular nerve from impingement by the superior transverse scapular ligament causes pain and decreased abduction and external shoulder rotation
What important structure runs beneath the clavicle or pectoralis minor? Brachial plexus; this is why postural dysfunction can cause brachial plexus injury.
What is the carrying angle of the elbow? 10-15 degrees in men, 20- 25 degrees in women, with the arm at the side.
What muscles are the major elbow flexors? brachialis, biceps brachii, and brachioradialis
What is the MAIN elbow flexor muscle? brachialis- works in pronation/supination/flexion/extension
Over what weight does the biceps brachii kick in during supinated flexion? The biceps brachii flexes when lifting greater than 2 pounds.
What is the function of the brachioradialis muscle? it stabilizes supination and pronation during strong resistance
What is the major elbow extensor? triceps brachii
what does the anconeus muscle do? assists the triceps in elbow extension and stabilizes during pronation and supination
What two shoulder muscles can help facilitate elbow extension during closed chain activities like push-ups or pushing heavy objects? pctoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles
What artery can be palpated over the anterior region of the cubital fossa? brachial artery: it is a continuation of the axillary artery
What is a Volkman's ishemic contracture? It is when there is an occlusion or laceration of the brachial artery that results in ischemia of the deep flexor muscles of the forearm, causing permanent shortening of the involved muscles.
What is a Colles' fracture? fracture of the distal radius caused by a FOOSH injury
Name the carpal bones Lateral to Medial (proximal row): Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform
What is the most frequently fractured carpal bone? scaphoid. poor blood supply and frequenctly develops avaxcular necrosis
With what two carpal bones does the radius articulate? Scaphoid and lunate
What nerve can be compressed under the flexor retinaculum and cause carpal tunnerl? median nerve
How much wrist extension is needed for optimal use of the hand? 20-30 degrees
What motions are used in the power grip? finger flexion, wrist extension, ulnar deviation
Damage to what nerve affects the ability to maintain the functional wrist position and to release an object? radial nerve
Damage to what nerve affects flexion of the digits on the radial side of the hand and precision grip? median
damage to what nerve affects flexion of the ulnar side digits and power grip? ulnar nerve damage
Created by: lhillard



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