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ARCH 141 - Terms

Arch 141

TermDefinition
Vault An arched ceiling or roof of stone brick or concrete.
Post & Lintel An ancient and, structurally the simplest type of construction. Vertical members supported by horizontal members.
Drum A vertical wall supporting a dome.
Cardo/decumanus an east-west street that served as a secondary main street.
Bay A verticle division of the exterior or interior of a building marked not by walls but by fenestration, and order, Buttresses, Units of vaulting, roof compartments, etc..
Arcade A series of arches supporting a wall, or set along it.
Arch The spanning of an opening by means other that of a lintel.
Arcuated A term applied to a building dependent structurally on the use of arches or the arch principle.
Atrium a inner court open to the sky and surrounded by small rooms covered with tiled roofs sloping inwards to a rectangular opening.
Barrel Vault A vault forming a half cylinder.
Molding Continuous projection or grove, used decoratively to throw shadow or to throw water away from a wall.
Megaron A square or oblong room with a central hearth and usually four columns to support the roof.
Triglyph Blocks separating the metopes in a doric frieze.
Villa The land owners residence or farmstead on his country estate.
Ziggurat A rectangular temple tower in the form of a truncated pyramid built in diminishing stages.
Aqueduct An artificial channel for carrying water, usually an elevated masonry or brick structure supported on arches.
Apse A large semicircular or polygonal recess in a church, arched or with a domed roof, typically at the n end, and usually containing the altar.
Aedicule Properly a canopied niche or shrine framed by two columns supporting an entablature and pediment.
Voussoirs A brick or wedge-shaped stone forming one of the units of an arch.
Volute A spiral scroll on an Ionic capital.
Transepts The transverse arms of a cross shaped church, usually between Nave and Chancel.
Pyramid Egyptian royal tomb.
Coffers Decoration of a ceiling, a vault, or an arch soffit.
Lintel A horizontal beam or stone bridging an opening.
Groin or Cross Vault Two intersecting barrel vaults.
Greek Cross A centralized plan based on a cross with four equal arms.
Nave The main central body of a longitudinally planned building such as a Roman Basilica or Christian church.
Niche A vertical recess in a wall pier etc., usually arched and containing a statue, urn or other decorative objects.
Obelisk A tall tapering shaft of stone usually granite, monolithic, of square or rectangular section.
Pediment Low-pitched gable above a portico.
Caryatid A sculptured female figure used as a column to support an entablature or something similar.
Base Columns sit on a pedestal usually a square die.
Terra Cotta Baked earth clay molded and kiln-fired to make a hard compact material used for bricks.
Keystone The central wedge-shaped stone at the crown of an arch or a rib vault.
Capital The head or crowning feature of a column, pier or pilaster.
Gable The triangular upper portion of a wall at the end of a pitched roof.
Cantilever A horizontal projection supported by a downward force behind a fulcrum.
Adobe Unbaked mud brick died in the sun. Often containing straw and pounded earth as reinforcement.
Trabeation Constructed on the post and lintel principle
Pilaster A rectangular column, especially one projecting from a wall
Peristyle A range of columns surrounding a building, open court or garden.
Polychromy The ancient Greek use of many colors in architecture.
Column An upright structural member, square, round or rectangular and usually slightly tapering.
Colonnade A series of regularly spaced columns supporting an entablature and usually one side of a roof.
Clerestory The upper stage of the main walls of a church above the aisle roofs.
Citadel In military architecture, a fort with from four to six bastions.
Centering Wooden framework used in arch and vault construction.
Dentils A small square block used in series in Ionic, Corninthan, Composite and rarely Doric Cornices.
Egg and Dart Molding decorated with a pattern based, on alternate eggs and arrow heads.
Facade The front or face of a building, usually emphasized architecturally
Cruicfrom Shaped like a cross, as in the plan of a christian church.
Crossing The space at the intersection of the nave.
Engaged column A structural column attached t, or partly sunk into, a wall, usually non-load bearing.
Entablature The upper part of an order
Corbelled Vault Brick or masonry courses, each built beyond the one below like a series of corbels.
Fenestration The arrangement of windows in the exterior walls of a building.
Elevation The external faces of a building. Also a drawing made in projection on a vertical plane.
Dome A vault of even curvature erected on a circular base or drum.
Cornice In classical arch, The top, projection section of an entablature.
Fluting Shallow, concave grooves running vertically on the shaft of a column.
Forum A central open space usually surrounded by public buuildings and colonnades.
Composite Order Mixed order, combing the volutes of the Ionic with leaves of the Corinthan order.
Tuscan Order Simplified Doric order, with un-fluted columns and simpler entablatures.
Doric Order The sturdiest, was based on the proportions of a man.
Ionic Order Was lighter reflects the proportions of a woman.
Corinthian Order Slenderest of all, highly decorated capital to suggest the form and proportions of a young maiden.
Pier a support of masonry, steel, or the like for sustaining vertical pressure
Frieze a broad horizontal band of sculpted or painted decoration, especially on a wall near the ceiling.
Created by: Npala123