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BJCP Technical Ques.

Technical Questions for the BJCP exam

What is malt? Malt is any grain that has been "tricked" into sprouting, converting starches into sugars.
Name two major categories of malt used in brewing. 1) Base Malt 2) Specialty Malts
What are base malts? Base malts make up the bulk of the fermentable mash. Consider this the foundation of the beer being brewed.
Name two types of base malts. 1) 2 row barley 2) 6 row barley
What kind of base malt is North America typically associated with? 6 row barley
What are Specialty Malts? Malts used to add specific color and/or flavors.
What is another name for Specialty Malts? Character Malts
Name three types of Specialty Malts: - Crystal Malt - Peated Malt - Black Malt - Biscuit Malt
What is the Acrospire? The sprout at the end of a seed when it begins to germinate.
Why is 6 row barley harder to brew with? Higher protein content results in greater amount of protein-polyphenol complexes during wort boiling & cooling, as well as increased problems with haze in the beer. The husk of the malt is high in tannins that contribute to haze, and astringent tastes.
How are the weaknesses of 6 row barley tempered? With the use of adjuncts, rice and corn typically.
Why is the Endosperm of the Malt important? It provides the starches and proteins used to provide energy to the Acrospire.
Briefly describe the malting process. Grains are steeped for 2-3 days. Germinated for 6 - 10 days. Dried to inhibit further growth. Kilned to achieve color and flavor.
Name the contents of malt. - Sugar & Starches - Enzymes - Proteins - Tannins - Polyphenols, Cellulose - Nitrogenous compounds
Name three types of enzymes found in malt. - Diastatic - Proteolytic - Debranching
Name the two types of diastatic enzymes found in malt. - Alpha Amylase - Beta Amylase
What is the function of the diastatic enzymes? It is an enzyme group that converts starches to sugars.
Name four categories of adjuncts. - Unmalted grain - Honey - Sugars - Fruits and Fruit Juices
A strong, green apple taste to your beer would indicate a presence of what? Acetaldehyde
How is astringency different from other off flavors? As astringency is the puckering of the taste buds, it's a mouthfeel characteristic more than a taste characteristic.
Name three possible causes of excessive bitterness. 1) Over-hopping, especially with alpha hops. 2) High concentration of magnesium and sulfates in the water. 3) Oxidation of the beer.
A buttery taste to your beer would indicate a presence of what? Diacetyl
DMS stands for what? Dimethyl-Sulfide
A banana taste to your beer would indicate a presence of what? Esters
A skunk aroma to a beer indicates a presence of what? mercaptans
A beer that smells like band-aids would indicate the presence of what? Phenols, specifically chlorophenols
A beer that has a papery/cardboard taste would indicate the presence of what? Oxidation
Name other possible phenol characteristics that are seen as acceptable in some beers. 1) Clove aroma/taste 2) Smoke aroma/taste
Say you have a beer with a sour taste, but is missing that green apple aroma and/or a vinegar-like taste. What is likely present in the beer? Lactic Acid
Is Acetaldehyde ever appropriate in beer? Yes. It is acceptable in light, standard, and premium American Lagers.
Is astringency ever appropriate in beer? No.
Is bitterness ever appropriate in beer? Yes. It is acceptable in IPA's, Pale Ales, and English Bitters.
Is diacetyl ever appropriate in beer? Yes. It is acceptable in Scotch Ales, Stouts, Pale Ales, Czech Pils, and Oktoberfests,
Are cardboard-like flavors ever appropriate in beer? No.
Are Medicinal/Band-Aid like flavors ever appropriate in beer? No.
Are clove-like flavors ever appropriate in beer? Yes. Belgian Witbier
Are skunk aromas or flavors ever appropriate in beer? No.
Are musty flavors ever appropriate in beer? Yes. Bier de Garde.
Are sherry flavors ever appropriate in beer? Yes. English Old Ales, Barleywines.
Are yeasty aromas/flavors ever appropriate in beer? No.
Are sweet flavors ever appropriate in beer? Yes. Strong Ales. Low levels of sweetness are acceptable in lambics and light American Lagers.
What are the causes of acetaldehyde in a beer? * Premature removal from yeast * Premature flocculation * Oxygen depletion * Improper Sanitation techniques.
What causes skunkiness in beer? Exposing beer to ultraviolet rays. Especially if stored in green or clear bottles.
What are the causes of diacetyl in a beer? * Premature racking or lagering * Low Fermentation Temperature * Pediococcus * Mutant Yeast
What are some of the causes of Lactic Acid sourness in a beer? * Poor Sanitation * Acid causing bacteria such as lactobacillus or pediococcus * Some yeast strains * mashing too long
What are some of the causes of excessive sweetness in a beer? * Low attenuation of the yeast. * High temperature mash * Excessive use of crystal malt, maltodextrin, or dextrin malts. * Excessive use of lactose (think milk stouts) * Premature Lagering
What are some causes of astringency in beers? * Oversparging * High temperature mash with highly Alkaline water. * Excessive hopping
What are some of the causes of the presence of phenols in beer? * The use of tap water * Sanitation techniques that use chlorine * Wild yeast
What are some of the causes of the presence of esters in beer? * Alcohols combined with acids at higher temps. * Yeast strains * Higher fermentation temperatures * Higher gravity worts
A pear taste to your beer would indicate a presence of what? esters
If you feel a slickness on the back of your teeth after drinking a beer, that would indicate a possible presence of what? Diacetyl
Diamethyal Sulfide can add what flavors to a beer? Canned corn, cabbage, celery, other vegetal tastes.
Are DMS flavors ever appropriate in a beer? Yes. Cream Ales.
Created by: KateCHopkins
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