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Unit 4:Modules 16-21

Sensation Stimulation of sensory receptors and the transmission of sensory info to the C.N.S (automatic)
Perception How we recognize, interpret, and organize our sensations (making sense of our sensory impressions)
Bottom-Up processing Recognize an object by its component parts; relies on sensory receptors
Top-Down Processing Identify by brain recognition; relies on prior experience (faster but not always accurate)
Filter theories Pass through at higher level than our receptors to get attention
Attentional resource theories Only a fixed amount of attention divided up as required in a situation
Inattentional blindness Fail to see visible objects when attention is directed elsewhere
Change blindness Failing to notice changes in the environment
Absolute threshold Minimum intensity to produce a sensation (50% of the time)
Difference threshold Noticeable change in a stimulus (50% of the time)
Weber’s law Greater the stimulus the larger the difference must be to be noticed
Sensory adaptation Unconscious temporary change to environmental stimuli; automatic process in our senses
Habituation Process by which we become accustomed to stimuli
Dishabituation Change in the stimulus at our change in awareness causes us to notice it again
Receptive field Area from which our receptor cells receive input
Transduction Input converted into electrochemical form of communication used by nervous system
Sensory coding Process by which receptors convey a range of info to the brain
Singe-cell recording The measuring of firing rate and pattern of receptor cells in response to varying sensory input
Sensory input How many fire/rate of firing/pattern of firing
Signal detection theory Method of distinguishing sensory stimuli taking into account not only strengths but also elements like setting, physical state, mood, motivation, attitudes and experience
Perceptual set Mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
Distal stimulus Object as it exists in the environment
Proximal stimulus Object as an image on the retina
Cornea Protective cover
Iris/ pupil Controls amount of light
Lens Focuses light on retina
Retina Contains receptor and other cells
Receptor cells Neurons that do transduction
Rods Brightness of light
Cones Color
Fovea Center of eye/greatest density of receptors
Bipolar cells Specialized neurons connected to photoreceptors
Ganglion cells Connected to bipolar cells; axons join together to form optic nerve (blind spot)
Feature detectors Specialized brain cells respond to particular elements in visual field
Hue Wavelengths/colors
Saturation Vividness/ richness of a color (hue)
Brightness Strength of the light
Afterimage Complimentary color
Young-hermholtz theory Cones are activated by light waves of blue, red, and green
Opponent process theory Cells operate antagonistically black/white; red/green; blue/yellow
Dichromats People who commit distinguish along color continuum’s
Momochromats See only in shades of black & white
Closure Tendency to perceive a complete or whole figure even where there are gaps in what your senses tell you
Figure-ground perception Perception of figured against a background
Proximity Tendency to group together visual and auditory events that are near each other
Similarity Tendency to group together elements that seem alike
Continuity Tendency to group stimuli into continuous patterns
Symmetry The tendency to see a mirror or balanced image
Common fate Tendency to perceive objects that are moving together as being together
Law of pragnanz Minimum tendency; to see objects in their simplest form
Depth perception Depth is the distance away; how far or close a stimulus is to you
Monocular cues At least one eye to be perceived
Linear perspective Tendency to see parallel lines as converging gets as they move away (vanishing point)
Clearness Nearby objects clearer/more detailed
Aerial perspective Atmospheric moisture and dust obscure farther objects more than closer ones
Texture Closer objects are more varied texture than objects far away
Overlapping Nearby objects block the view of more distant objects
Shadows and highlights Light and dark sections create impression of contours and a 3rd dimensio
Relative height Items higher in our field of vision perceived as farther away
Motion parallax Tendency of objects to seem to move more (closer) or less (father) depending on how far way they are from the viewer
Binocular cues Both eyes required to be perceived
Retinal disparity Difference of the images on the retina of each eye
Stereopsis 3-D image from brain combining the images on our retinas
Convergence Eyes turn slightly inward to focus on nearby objects; Detect muscle movement
Perceptual Constancies Perceive objects as stable and unchanging even with changes in sensory stimulation
Motion detection Changing position on retina; movement of head; eyes
Autokinetic effect Still light appears to move in darkness
Stroboscopic effect Rapid sequence of images not moving; “motion” pictures
Phi phenomenon Appearance of movement (message with light induced motion)
Pitch High/Low
Loudness Height in waves; measured in decibels( 0 = threshold/pllo)
Over tones Multiples of the basic tone
Timbre Complex pattern of overtones (texture of sound)
Process of hearing 1: tympanic movement (eardrum vibrates to waves) 2: ossicles (malles/incus/stapes) middle ear 3 bones vibrate)
conductive deafness Problems transmitting sound to cochlea
Sensorineural Damage to hair cells in cochlea
Perceptive deafness Impairment of structures from cochlea to auditory cortex
Place Hair cells respond to different frequencies based on location in the cochlea (higher tones)
frequency Hair cells fire at different rates(frequencies) in cochlea (low tones)
Volley principle Neurons fire in the sequence; more rapid impulses (adds to frequency theory for higher sounds)
Monaural Loudness of sound and changes related distance and direction
Binaural Difference of sound perceived by two ears a cue to direction
Smell (olfaction) Gas molecules (chemicals) detected by receptor neurons
Pheromones Communicating chemicals influence behavior (vomersonsal organ)
Papillae Bumps on tongue contain taste buds (specialized receptor neurons)
Flavor of food -sweet, salty, sour, bitter - odor, temperature & food
Skin -pressure and movement (myelinated) -pain and temperature (unmyelinated) -warm and cold fibers
Nociceptors Sensory receptors that detect hurtful elements
Gate control theory Neurological gate controls pain messages to brain related to sensory fibers (large/small)
Biopsychosocial theory 3 factors influence intensity and duration of pain (genetics; experience; beliefs; motivation; personality)
Vestibular -balance -orientation in space (up/down) - in inner ear (semicircular canals; vestibular sacs)
Kinesthesis Location and position of body parts; muscle movement and posture
Stretch receptors Attached to muscles
Golgi tendon organs Attach to tendons
Created by: Mialobito
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