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Physics Midterm 1

QuestionAnswer
What's the law of conservation? Energy cannot be created or destroyed, its form just changes
What popular atomic structure do we use? The Bohr Model
What's in the nucleus? Protons and neutrons
How much does a proton weigh compared to an electron? 1 proton = 2000 electrons
Can electrons be further subdivided? If so, into what? No
Can nucleons be further subdivided? If so, into what? Yes, into quarks
What are quarks? How many types are there? Quarks are the fundamental building blocks of nucleons. Up quarks have a +2/3 charge and down quarks have a -1/3 charge. There are six types in total (top, bottom, strange, charmed...)
What bind quarks together? Gluons
How do you calculate the max number of electrons in a shell? Is there an exception? 2n^2. Exception is the valence shell, which cannot surpass 8 electrons
Mass number (# of nucleons)
What's "Z"? Atomic number (# of protons)
What's "X"? Atomic symbol (appears in the periodic table to identify elements)
What are isotopes? Elements with the same number of protons and electrons (so same atomic #) but a different amount of neutrons (so different atomic mass)
What affects binding energy? It increases with the # of protons and closeness to the nucleus
Is potential energy positive or negative? Negative
What's the normal state of an atom? # of electrons = # of protons
What's the ground state of an atom? All inner shells are filled
What can cause electrification? Contact, friction, induction, or ionization
What is electrical force directly related to? Inversely related to? Directly related to charge, inversely related to distance
How do electrons distribute across a rounded object? A pointed object? Evenly across a round object, condensed at a point
At what temperatures do conductors work best? Why? Cold, because it decreases resistance
What is electrical potential energy comparable to in radiology? What equation and unit does it use? Comparable to quality of electrons (kVp) and is measured in volts. V = E/Q
What is electric current comparable to in radiology? What equation and unit does it use? Comparable to quantity of electrons (mAs) and is measured in ampheres. I = Q/t
What is electrical resistance? What is it directly and inversely related to? The hindrance to electron flow. Directly related to length and inversely related to area
What is capacitance measured in? Farads
What does Ohms law do? Describes the relationships between voltage, current, and resistance (V=IR)
What is electric power measured in? How is it applied in radiology? Watts, used in x-ray tube ratings
List the three magnetic strength classifications, from weakest to strongest Diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic
What causes magnetism? The motion of charged particles
What creates a magnetic domain? The accumulation of many atomic magnets and their dipoles
What is magnetic induction? The process of dipole realignment in ferromagnets when placed near a magnet (can create artificial permanent magnets)
What happens if you break a magnet in half? You'll get two equally strong magnets
What is magnetic flux? Does it ever intersect? Imaginary lines of force around a magnet, never intersect
What effect does increasing current have on magnetic field and flux? Both increase
What do electromagnets depend on? Amount of current, # of turns, and an iron core
What effect does increasing the number of turns have on magnetic current and flux intensity? They both increase
What do conductors do? Induce electric current due to influence of changing magnetic fields
What influences the magnitude of induced current when dealing with conductors? Strength of magnetic field, rate of change, # of turns, angle between conductor and magnetic field
What is Faraday's law? Electric current will be induced if part of circuit is changing in the magnetic field because this change produces resistance
What is Lenz's law? Induced current flows in the opposite direction that induced it
What affect does an increase in the # of coils have on resistance and induced voltage? They both increase
What are the two types of induction? Mutual and self
What's "A"?
Created by: Ewood61