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Midterm - SC 545

Study Guide

test a measurement device or technique used to quantify behavior or aid in the understanding or prediction of behavior
item specific stimulus to which a person responds overtly; this response can be scored or evaluated
psychological test, or educational test a set of items that are designed to measure characteristics of human beings that pertain to behavior
scales relate raw scores on test items to some defined theoretical or empirical distribution
individual tests tests that can be given to only one person at a time
group test test that can be administered to more than one person at a time by a single examiner
achievement previous learning
aptitude refers to the potential for learning or acquiring a specific skill
intelligence refers to a person's general potential to solve problems, adapt to changing circumstances, think abstractly, and profit from experience
human ability behaviors that reflect either what a person has learned or the person's capacity to emit a specific behavior includes achievement, aptitude, and intelligence
personality tests measure typical behavior --- traits, temperaments, and dispositions; related to the overt and covert dispositions of the individual
structured personality tests provides a self-report statement to which the person responds (objective)
projective personality tests provides an ambiguous test stimulus; response requirements are unclear
reliability refers to the accuracy, dependability, consistency, or repeatability of test results
validity refers to the meaning and usefulness of test results
test administration the act of giving a test
interview a method of gathering information through verbal interaction, such as direct questions
test battery two or more tests used in conjunction
representative sample one that comprises individuals similar to those for whom the test is to be used
mental age a measurement of a child's performance on the test relative to other children of that particular age group
traits relatively enduring dispositions (tendencies to act, think, or feel in a certain manner in any given circumstance) that distinguish one individual from another
factor analysis method of finding the minimum number of dimensions (characteristics, attributes) to account for a large number of variables
inferences logical deductions about events that cannot be observed directly
descriptive statistics methods used to provide a concise description of a collection of quantitative information
inferential statistics methods used to make inferences from observations of a small group of people known as a sample to a larger group of individuals known as a population
nominal scales not really scales at all, their only purpose is to name objects
ordinal scales scale with the property of magnitude but not equal intervals or an absolute 0, allows a person to rank items
Give an example of an ordinal scale ranking person by height or weight
interval scale scale has the properties of magnitude and equal intervals but not absolute 0
Give an example of an interval scale Fahrenheit scale or Celsius scale
ratio scale has all three properties, magnitude, equal intervals, and absolute 0
Give an example of a ratio scale Kelvin scale
frequency distribution scores on a variable or a measure to reflect how frequently each value was obtained
class interval the demarcations along the x axis
percentile rank answers the question "What scores fall below a particular score?"
mean arithmetic average score in a distribution
standard deviation an approximation of the average deviation around the mean; the square root of the average squared deviation around the mean
variance average squared deviation around the mean
Z score difference between a score and the mean, divided by the standard deviation
McCall's T standard deviation is set at 10, mean is set at 50
quartiles points that divide the frequency distribution into equal fourths
median second quartile - 50th percentile
interquartile range the interval of scores bounded by the 25th and 75th percentiles; the middle 50% of the distribution
deciles use points that mark 10% rather than 25% intervals
stanine system converts any set of scores into a transformed scale, which ranges from 1 to 9, standard nine
norms performances by defined groups on particular tests
tracking the tendency to stay at about the same level relative to one's peers
norm-referenced test test that compares each person with a norm
criterion-referenced test describes the specific types of skills, tasks, or knowledge that the test taker can demonstrate such as mathematical skills
scatter diagram a picture of the relationship between two variables
correlation coefficient a mathematical index that describes the direction and magnitude of a relationship
regression line defined as the best fitting straight line through a set of points in a scatter diagram
In a negative correlation, high scores on the x variable are associated with what on the y variable? lower scores on the y variable
intercept the value of Y when X is 0. the point at which the regression line crosses the Y axis
example of a true dichotomous variable gender - male/female or yes/no answers
type of correlation coefficient used to find the association between two sets of ranks Spearman's Rho
type of correlation coefficient used to correlate a dichotomous variable (two categories) and a continuous variable biseral (point biserial is true dichotomous)
what is the variance of 1, 2, and 3` 1
x and y correlated .8. What is the coefficient of alienation of this relation? .6
when talking about errors in terms of psychological testing, what are we referring to some inaccuracy in our measurements
classic test theory assumes that each person has a true score that would be obtained if there were no errors in measurement
We can get an idea of how much measurement error is present in a score through the standard error of measurement
In the domain sampling model, the error that is being considered is the error caused by using a limited number of items to represent a larger and more complicated construct - sample
The Federal Government guidelines require a test to be reliable before one can use it to make employment or educational placement decisions
The difference between two typing tests reflects practice effects, a form of carryover effects
Two equivalent forms of a test and administered both, in counter balanced order, to a group of people on the same day to access reliability is parallel forms
The Spearman Brown formula corrects for deflated reliability because of split half method
An example of the most conservative estimate of split-half reliability Cronbach's coefficient alpha
Difference scores are created by subtracting one test score from another
the agreement between a test score and the construct it is presumed to measure is referred to as validity
validity refers to "does it measure what it is supposed to measure"
Which type of validity requires that test items provide an adequate representation of the conceptual domain they are designed to cover? content-related evidence validity
If a variable has a restricted range, it is difficult to estimate a validity coefficient due to a lack of variability in both the predictor and the criterion
researcher seeking to develop a measure of depression cites a moderate correlation between her measure and another as evidence of validity; this is construct validity evidence
discriminant and convergent evidence provide evidence for construct-related validity
Cronback and other authors have argued that all types are validity are really categories of evidence
the type of validity that subsumes all other types of validity is called divergent validity
which of the following statements is true It is logically impossible that a totally unreliable test is valid
attitude scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree Likert scale
one method that is not used often because scoring is very time consuming is the visual analogue scale
the optimal item difficulty of a 6-alternative test is what .585
the proportion of test takers that get a good item correct increases as a function of the test's efficiency, validity, and reliability
proponents of criterion referenced tests have criticized item analysis procedures because they they do not help children learn; they just seem what the students have learned
.93 of top students and .89 of bottom students answers the same question correctly; the instructor should not use this question because it is not a good question; it have high and low level, not sure about middle
peaked conventional tests present items that are in the middle range, for middle students
The chances that low-ability test takers will obtain each score is called the guessing threshold
in most situations a good test should contain items that are the complete range, from easy to hard
the effects of examiners' expectations upon test scores shows that there is a correlation between scores and expectations - expectancy effects or Rosenthal effects
Studies on the effect of reinforcement upon intelligence test performance by African Americans shows that culturally appropriate verbal reinforcement caused higher scores
reliability and accuracy are highest when someone is checking on the observers reactivity
data in behavioral observation studies have sometimes been found to be biased in the direction of the observer's own beliefs contrast effect (form of drift)
approach used to remove the effect of uncontrolled variability partial correlation
advantages of using computer-assisted test administration easier to give; adaptability; open answers
research on integrity tests suggests that the validity of them is questionable
worry, emotionality, and lack of self-confidence test anxiety
statement used to comfort or support an interviewee reassuring
transitional phrase phrase used to move along the interview
verbatim playback repeating the words directly back to the interviewee
level one response response that does not have anything to do with the conversation
confrontation should be used with great caution in cases where it would cause a problem because it is direct approach
tendency to judge specific traits on the basis of a general impression halo effect
research indicates people are more apt to talk about or explore themselves at deeper levels when .... responses are used open-ended
oldest approach to investigating human intelligence psychometry
when sets of diverse ability tests are administered to large, unbiased samples, almost all of the correlations are positive, a phenomenon known as positive manifold
main improvement of the 1908 Binet-Simon scale was the introduction of the concept of mental age
the scale that used the terms idiot, imbecile, and moron 1905 Binet-Simon scale
version of the Binet scale that first utilized a large, geographically diverse sample 1972
improvements of the 1937 Scale extended the age range and included an alternate equivalent form
most significant psychometric of the 1937 Scale the reliability coefficients were higher for older subjects that for younger ones
deviation IQ became necessary because to solve the problem of differential variation in IQs
First version of the Stanford Binet to include non-whites 1972
In the 2003 edition the verbal and nonverbal scales are equally weighted
major criticism of the Binet scale by Wechsler did not have validity/reliability in older ages
Not true of Wechsler Scales They are invalid for adults.
components of Wechsler's definition of intelligence act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment
subtest that measures short term and auditory memory digit span subtest
Verbal IQ - mean = ; standard deviation = 100; 15
subtest that measures ability to learn an unfamilar task, visualize motor dexterity, and degree of persistence digit symbol coding
validity of the WAIS-III rests on its correlation with previous tests by W
attempts to measure how quickly your mind works processing speed index
evaluating relatively large differences between subtest scaled scores is interpretation
An improvement in the WISC-IV over the WISC-III is in its use of empirical data to identify item biases
Created by: phartley