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Cardio Assess Unit 3

SPC Cardiopulmonary Assessment Unit 3 Exam 2

Describe Posteroanterior Radiograph (PA) STANDARD, patient is standing, x-ray beam through the back, film against anterior chest
Describe Anteroposterior Radiograph (AP) POTABLE, patient is lying in bed, x-ray beam through the anterior chest, film against the back
Describe Lateral Radiograph Patient turns sideways, film placed along R or L lateral chest wall, used to asses Lower Lobe Lesions
Describe Lateral Decubitus Radiograph Patient lies w/ film against affected side, used to assess pleural effusion
Describe Apical Lordotic Radiograph Film placed along patients upper back, x-ray placed @45degree caudal angle from the lower anterior chest is shot, used to asses middle and upper lobe lesions
Radiation safety for RT's consist of what? 1. At least 6ft away behind something 2. Bagging through scans 3. Protect neck, pads, & knees 4. Watch out for floroscopes
Many radiograph techniques were replaced by what? CT scans
What color is air on a CXR? Black
What are the 4 desities on a CXR? Radiolucent, Black, White,
What does radiolucent mean? Transparent to X-Rays, Black, air
What does radiopaque mean? Non-Transparent to X-Rays, White, dense objects
What would show up black? AIR: Parenchyma, Pneumothorax, Bullae, Pneumatoceles
What would show up light gray? FLUID: Blood vessels, Fissure fluid, Pleural fluid
What would show up white? DENSE Objects: Fat, Heart, Breast, Adipose, Bone, Clavicles, Ribs
How big should the cardiac silhouette be in a CXR? <.50%
What is normal with the diaphragm on a CXR? R diaphragm is 2cm higher than the L
Costophrenic Angles should be what degree on a XR? 30 degrees
If you see a tracheal shift that would indicate? Pneumothorax
Changes in lymph nodes on CXR would indicate? Adenopathy
PA engorgement on a CXR would indicate? Cor Pulmonale
Clavicals on a CXR are used for what? Used to check positioning
Posterior Ribs on a CXR are used for what? Used to assess lung volume
Anterior Ribs on an CXR are used for what? Used to check lung volume
Where should the vertebrae be positioned on a CXR? Between the medial ends of the clavicles
What is over exposure? Lung fields are black w/o vascularity, vertebrae easily seen through cardiac shadow
What is under exposure? Lung field are white
What is seen at end-inspiratory level on a CXR? 1. Diaphragm is between 9th-11th Posterior Ribs & 4th-6th Anterior Ribs 2. Lower lung volumes show whiter lung field and larger heart shadow
Location of Atelectasis on CXR? Lobar
Changes with Atelectasis on CXR? 1. Tracheal Shift (towards) 2. Hemidiaphragm Elevation 3. Narrowed Posterior rib spaces 4. Volume Loss
Changes with Pneumothorax on CXR? 1. Black Hemithorax 2. Lung Mass towards hilum 3. W/ Tension Tracheal Shift (away)
Changes with COPD Hyperinflation on CXR? 1. Narrow, Tear-shaped Heart 2. Prominent PAs 3. Low, Flat Diaphragms 4. Wide Posterior Ribs Spaces 5. Horizontal Posterior Ribs 6. Radiolucent Lung Fields
Changes with Interstitial Disease in CXR? 1. Cobweb like 2. Honeycombing 3. Milliary pattern
Changes with Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema in CXR? 1. Increased C-T Ratio > .50 2. Kerley’s B Lines: Infiltration of interlobar septa. & Prominent @ R lung base. 3. Blunted C/P Angles 4. Notably R side. 5. Dense fluffy lung fields project from hilar area i.e. batwing or butterfly
Changes with Consolidation in CR? 1. Opacification (White) 2. Air bronchospasm: air filled bronchi contrasted against opaque lung tissue
Created by: Langhout1418