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PSY 280 Chapter 6

Exam 2

Anxiety ~Apprehension about a future threat ~Ambigous threat ~worry ~Increases prepardness
Fear ~Response to an immediate threat ~clear threat ~phobia ~triggers fight or flight (may save life)
Anxiety vs Fear ~Related ~Both can be adaptive
"U-shaped" curve ~absence of anxiety interferes with performance ~moderate levels of anxiety improve performance ~high levels of anxiety are detrimental to performance
DSM-5 Anxiety Disorders ~Specific phobias ~Social anxiety disorder ~panic disorder ~Agoraphobia ~Generalized anxiety disorder 25-30% will have some form of anxiety disorder (prevalence) ~most common are phobias
Phobias ~Disruptive fear of a particular object or situation ~Fear out of proportion to actual threat ~Awareness that fear is excessive ~must be severe enough to cause distress or interfere with job or social life ~Avoidance ~most prevalent/least impairin
Specific phobia ~Disproportionate fear of a particular object or situation ~Fear of spiders, snakes etc ~Fear out of proportion to actual threat ~Clusters around few objects and situations ~high comorbidity
DSM-5 Criteria for a specific phobia ~Marked and disproportionate fear consistently triggered by specific objects or situations ~the object or situation is avoided or else endured with intense anxiety ~symptoms persist for at least 6 months
Social anxiety disorder ~Previously called social phobia ~Causes more life disruption than other phobias ~more intense than shyness ~persistent, intense fear and avoidance of social situations ~Fear of negative evaluation or scrunity ~Humiliation ~Onset often adolescence
DSM-5 Criteria for social anxiety disorder ~Marked and disproportionate fear consistently triggered by exposure to potential social scrunity ~intense anxiety about being evaliated negatively ~Trigger situations are avoided or else endured with intense anxiety ~Symptoms persist atleast 6 months
Panic disorder ~Frequent panic attacks unrelated to specific situation
Panic attacks ~Sudden, intense episode of fright, unease, discomfort, intense urge to flee ~symptoms reach peak intensity within 10 minutes ~unexpected ~25% of people will experience a single panic attack
uncued panic attacks ~occur unexpectaedly without warning ~panic disorder diagnoses requires recurrent uncued attacks ~causes worry about future attacks
DSM-5 Criteria for panic disorder ~Recurrent unexpected panic attacks ~Atleast 1 month of concern about the possibility of more attacks, worry about the consequences of an attack, or maladaptice behaviorla changes because of attacks
Agoraphobia ~Anxiety about inability to flee anxiety- provoking situations, e.g. crows, stores, malls, churches, trains, etc. ~Causes significant impairment ~Atleast half of algoraphobics do not suffer panic attacks
DSM-5 criteria for agoraphobia ~Fear or anxiety about at least 2 situations where it would be difficult to escape or receive help in the event of incapacitation or panic-like symtoms, such as being outside ~Shela lol ~these situations consistently provoke fear or anxiety ~6 mots
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD); worry disorder ~Chronic, excessive, generalized, uncontrollable worry ~6 months ~interferes w/daily life ~often cannot decide on a solution or course of action symptoms: restlessness, poor concentration, fatigue ~common worries: relationships, health ~adolescence
DSM-5 GAD ~Excessive anxiety and worry most days about atleast 2 life domains (e.g. family, healthy, finances, work, and school) ~The person finds it hard to control the worry ~The worry is sustained for atleast 6 mots
DSM-5 GAD (2) ~ Marked avoidance of situations in which negative emotions could occur, time might have a negative outcome, procrastination, difficulty making decisions, due to worries, or repeate seeking reassurance due to worries.
Comorbidity ~50% of those with anxiety disorder meet criteria for another anxiety disorder. ~75% of those with anxiety disorder meet criteria for another psy disorder
disorder commonly comorbid with anxiety ~60% with anxiety also have depression ~substance abuse ~personality disorders ~medical disorder e.g. coronary heart disease
Gender differences ~women are 2 as likely as men to have anxiety disorder
social explanations ~women may be more liekly to report symptoms ~gender sterotype women are "more emotional" ~men are more likely to be encouraged to face fears
biological explanations ~differences in brain structure and function ~sex hormones
Cultural factors rate of anxiety disorders varies by culture, but ratio or somatic to psychological symptoms appears similar.
General vulnerabilities for anxiety disorders ~genetic (inherited) ~psy (unpredictable and uncontrollability overestiamtion of threat, exxaggertaion of consequences) ~specific psy vulnerability through learning (classical and operant) ~behavioral inhibition ~neuroticism
Risk factors Occurs before disorder occurs
correlates things we can see at that moment that are related to current disorder. Don't know if it caused, just know it's related
Genetic ~twin studies suggest heritability ~Shared genes for GAD panic agoraphobia vs. specific phobia
Neurobiological ~Fear circuit over activity ~Amygdala ~Prefrontal cortext deficits
Neurotransmitters ~Poor functioning of serotonin and GABA ~Higher levels of norephine
Behavioral inhibition- temperament ~Tendency to be agitated, distress, avoidant and cry in unfamiliar or novel settings ~observed in infants as youngs as 4 months ~may be inherited ~predicts anxiety in childhood ad social anxiety in adolescence
Neuroticism ~Tendency to react with frequent negative emotion ~Linked to anxiety and depression ~Double the liklihood of developing anxiety disorders
Sustained negative beliefs about future ~Bad things will happen ~If bad things do happen, it will be devastating
Belief that one lacks control over environment ~more vulnerable to developing anxiety disorder ~Childhod trauma or punitive parenting may foster beliefs ~Serious life events can threaten sense of control
Attention to threat ~Tendency to notice negative environment cues ~Selective attention to certain cues
Mower's to factor model ~pairing of stimulus with aversive UCS leads to fear (classical conditioning) ~avoidance maintained though negative reinforcement (operant conditioning)
modeling seeing another person harmed by the stimulus
verbal instruction parent warning a child about a danger
hose with anxeity tend to acquire fear more readily and to be more resistant to extinction
risk factors act as diatheses vulnerabilities influences development of phobias
prepared learning ~evolutionary preparation to fear certain stimuli ~potentially life-threatening (heights, snakes, etc).
behavioral factors ~factors similar to specific phobia (i.e., classical operant conditioning)
cognitive factors ~unrealistic negative beliefs about consequences of behaviors ~excessive attention to internal cues ~fear of negative evaluation by others ~Expect other to dislike them ~negative self-evaluation ~harsh, punitive self-judgement
Eitiology of panic disorder Behavioral factors ~interoceptive conditioning ~classical conditioning of panic in response to internal bodily sensations
Etiology of panic disorder Cognitive factors ~Catastrophic misinterpretations of somatic changes ~interpreted as impending doom; I must be having a heart attack ~beliefs increase anxiety and arousal ~Creates vicious cycle
Anxiety sensitivity index ~High scores predict development of panic ~unusual body sensations scare me ~When I notice that my heart is beating rapidly; I worry that I might have a heart attack
Etiology of panic disorder Neurobiological factors ~locus coerules ~Major source of noreponephrine ~A trigger for nervous system activity ~People with panic disorder more sensative to drugs that trigger the release of norepinephrine
Etiology of Agoraphhobia ~Fear of fear hypothesis ~Expectations about the catastrophic consequences of having a public panic attack ~New research consistent with more of a fear disorder than anxiety/ distress disorder i.e. more like a phobia
Etiology of GAD ~The excessive worry of GAD may be an attempt to avoid intense emotions
Borkovee's cognitive model ~Worry reinforcing because it distracts from negative emotions+images ~Allows avoidance of more disturbing emotions ~E.g. distress of previous trauma ~Worrying decreases psychophysiological arousal ~Avoidance prevents extinction of underlying anxiety
Psychological treatments emphasize exposure ~Face the situation or object that triggers annxiety ~should include as many features of the trigger as possible ~should be conducted in as many settings as possible ~70-90% effective (~50% reduction)
Treatments of the anxiety disorders cognitive approaches ~increases belief in ability to cope with the anxiety ~challenge/test expectations about negative outcomes
phobias exposure in vivo (real-life) exposure more effective than systematic desensitization
social anxiety disorder exposure role playing or small group interaction
social anxiety disorder social skill training reduce use of safety behavior
social anxiety disorder cognitive therapy Clark's (2003) cognitive therapy more effective than medication or exposure
Panic control therapy (PCT) ~Exposure to somatic sensations associated with panic attack in a safe setting; increased heart rate, rapid breathing, dizziness ~Use of coping stategies to control symptoms; relaxation/deep breathing ~PCT benefits maintained after treatment ends
Psychological treatment of GAD ~Relaxation training ~Cognitive behavioral methods; ~Challenge and modify negative thoughts ~increase ability to tolerate uncertainty ~Worry only during "scheduled" times ~Exposure to "contrasts" ~mindfulness ~Acceptance of commitment therapy
Medications ~Anxiolytics: drugs that reduce anxiety ~Benzodaiepenes= quick acting ~Antidepressants= slower acting ~Side effects can be problematic w/continuing medication
Combined treatment ~Combination of medication and CBT does not lead to best outcomes. ~Withdrawal of medications after CBT + meds may actually increase relapse.
Created by: Randi.keys
Popular Psychology sets




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