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BMO test #1

BMO State Board Test #1

QuestionAnswer
Attenuation Describes changes in the x-ray beam as it travels through the patient
Which photon-tissue interaction makes radi-ography possible because of its creation of contrast? Photoelectric
Which photon-tissue interaction produces ra-diation that may expose others in the room during fluoroscopy? Compton
The traditional unit of absorbed dose is the Rad
The traditional unit of activity is the Curie
Measurement of positive and negative parti-cles created when radiation ionizes atoms in the air helps define the Roentgen
Linear energy transfer Varies for different types of radiation
The unit of the curie would be used in what imaging modality? Nuclear medicine
Graphs that demonstrate the relationship be-tween radiation received and the organism's response are called Dose-response curves
Medical x-rays are an example of Artificially produced radiation
Cataractogenesis does not occur at low levels of radiation exposure. Therefore it is best expressed by which of the following dose-response relationships? Threshold
Increased dose equals increased probability of effects best describes which of the following? Stochastic effects
The cumulative occupational exposure for a 22-year-old radiographer is: 22 rem
The annual effective dose limit for the general public, assuming frequent exposure, is: 0.1 rem
The secondary protective barrier used in roomshielding must be at least how thick? 1/32 inch Pb equivalent
The intensity of the scattered beam is 1/1000 the intensity of the primary beam at a _____ angle 1 meter from the patient, 90-degree
If the radiation dose 6 feet from the x-ray table is 5 R, what is the dose at a distance of 3 feet? 20 R
The minimum source-to-skin distance for fixed fluoroscopes is 15 inches
The use of gonadal shielding on female patients may reduce gonad dose by up to: 50%
Cells that are oxygenated are more susceptible to radiation damage. This describes: Oxygen enhancement ratio
The blood count is depressed following a whole body dose equivalent of at least how many rads? 25
Highly reactive ions that have unpaired elec-trons in the outer shell are called: Free radicals
The master molecule that directs cell activities is: DNA
The process of somatic cell division is called: Mitosis
The most common effect from exposure to ionizing radiation is: Nothing
Most radiation-induced damage to cells occurs: At doses of radiation much higher thanthat used in radiography
Radiation dose up to _____ are considered low risk to the embryo-fetus. 15 to 20 rads
A concept of radiologic practice that encourages radiation users to adopt measures that keep the dose to the patient and themselves at minimum levels is called: ALARA
Which of the following is(are) relatively insenĀ¬sitive to radiation? Nerve tissue
Somatic effects of radiation Are caused when a large dose of high-LETradiation is received by a large area of thebody
The best way to keep radiation dose to the patient low is: Avoiding repeat exposures
X-rays may remove electrons from atoms in the body by a process called Ionization
lonization may cause: Unstable atoms
Cell damage may be exhibited as: Loss of function or abnormal function
Damage to the cell being irradiated is called Somatic
Radiation effects that show up in the next generation are called Genetic
Radiation that is contained in the environment is called Natural background
Background radiation is the source of what percent of human exposure 82%
The annual effective dose per person from natural background radiation is approximately 295 mrem
The greatest source of natural background radiation to humans is Radon
The smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of the element is an Atom
Atomic mass refers to The number of protons plus the number of neutrons
X-rays travel as bundles of energy called Photons
The height of a sine wave is called Amplitude
The number of x-ray waves passing a given point per unit time is called Frequency
The transformer that operates on the principle of self-induction is the Autotransformer
Electronic timers used in x-ray equipment allow for exposure time as low as 1/1000 sec
To ensure consistencey of radigraphic quality from one exposure to the next, what device may be used automatic exposure control
What happens when a predentminded level of ionization is reached in the ionization chamber The exposure is terminated
An x-ray machine that uses a continually decreasing mA for the shortest times possible uses a falling load generator
An x-ray machine that makes maximum use of heat loading potential uses a falling load generator
Devices in the x-ray circuit that operates on the principle of mutual induction are called Transformers
The high-voltage secction of the x-ray ciruit makes use of what type of transformer Step-up
The device in the x-ray circuit that changes AC to DC is the Rectifier
What type of current is required for proper operation of the x-ray tube? Direct
Modern rectifiers are made of Silicon-base semicondutors
The result of thermionic emmission is a electron cloud
The focusing cup is located at the Cathode (-)
An interaction that produces x-rays at rge anode as a result of outer-shell electrons filling hole in the K-shell is called Characteristic
When a quality control test is performed to ensure that adjacent mA stations are accurate, the results must be within this amount of one another: 10%
When a quality control test is performed to ensure that the same exposure factor produces consistent x-ray output, successive exposure must be within this amount of one another 5%
When a quality control test is performed to enusre that the collimator is providing appropriate radiation protection, the result must be within this amount 2% of SID
When a quality control test is performend to ensure that the penetrating ability of the x-ray beam is accurate, the result must be within this amount of the control panel setting 4
In digital fluoroscopy, the image should be viewed on what device to take advantage of the digital capabilities? High- resolution monitor
A primary advantage of digital fluoroscopy is Postprocessing manipulation of the image
The active portionof a CR imaging plate is Photostimulable phosphor
Energy in a CR imaging plate is released after exposure to Laser beam
In digital fluoroscopy and computed radiography, the energy must be changed to digital form by a Analog-to-digital converter
An algorithm is a mathematical formula used to reconstruct the image in digital imaging
In computed radiography, each pixel corresponds to a shade of gray representting an area in the patient known as a Voxel
A digital image is composed of rows and columns known as a Matrix
Image brightness in computed radiography may be adjusted by Changing the window level
The window level in computed radiography is the Midpoint of densities
Radiographic contrast in computed radiography may be adjusted by changing the window width
The amount of darkness on a radiograbh is controlled primarily by mAs
The visible image contained in the emulsion of a film is called Manifest image
The quantity of x-ray produced is directly controlled by mAs
The rule or law that governs changing technique using kVp is the 15% rule
If the SID is halved, what may be said about radiographic density Density is quadrupled
The crossover rollers in the processor should be cleaned twice daily
Speed, contrast, and base plus fog should checked on every processor Daily
The contrast step used during senitometric testing is located where on the H & D curve? Body,just below the shoulder
A malfuntion in which the developer temperature runs too low will cause Light films
A situation in which fixer solution has entered the developer tank will cause Fogged films
In which section of the process are silver halide crystals converted to black metallic silver Developer
In which section of the processor might the oder of ammonia indicate a problem Developer
Which of the following system agitates and circulates the developer solution? Recirculation
Which of the following grid errors will result in an image that shows normal density in the middle but decreased density on the sides and may follow removal and replacement of the grid Upside down
Grid frequency is described as the Number of lead strips per inch or centimeter
The portion of an intensifying screen that contains phosphors is the active layer
A slower film-screen system will show Wider latitude
A faster Film-screen system will exhibit poorer recorded detail
The section of an H & D curve that represents the visible image is the Body
The fuction of the blue tint added to the film's base is to Enhance contrast
As kVp is decresed Contrast increase
As kVp is incresed Scale of contrast lengthens
Beam restriction has the folloing effect on contrast Shorter scale of contrast
As Kvp increases, there is an incresed production of Short wavelengths
The relationship between kVp and Density is Direct, although not proportional
Grids that have strips angled to coincide with divergence of the x-ray beam are called focused
The speed of the film-screen combination has what relationship with density Direct, although not proportional
When a gird is used, what tech factor must be incresed to compensate for the loss of image-forming rays mAs
Filters that even out density of irregular anatomy are called compensating
Any misrepresentation of an anatomic structure on an image receptor that alters its size or shape defines distortion
The speed of intensifying screens is expressed as a number that is called Relative speed number
The density obtained with a 400- speed system is how many times that obtained with 100 speed system, for the same exposure 4
The wavelengh of light emitted by intensifying screen must be matched with wavelenghts to which the type of film used is most sensitive. This is called Spectral matching
Grid ratio is expresses as Heigh of the strip to the space between them
The primary type of the grid used in diagnostic imaging is Focused
Created by: flaca007