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Big Bang

TermDefinition
RED SHIFT Shift toward longer wavelengths of spectral lines emitted by a celestial object caused by object moving away from earth, important piece of evidence for Big Bang Theory
BLUE SHIFT Shift toward shorter wavelengths of spectral lines emmited by a celestial object that is caused by object moving toward earth
SPECTRA Lines of light that act as elemental fingerprints in light sources in space
EVIDENCE Collected body of data from observations and experiments
BIG BANG THEORY Theory the universe began as a small extremely dense object that expanded rapidly about 13.7 billion years ago
HYDROGEN Main element formed in the Big Bang formed from colliding protons and neutrons 3 minutes after the Big Bang cooled. This makes up 75% of matter in the Universe.
COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION Weak radiation that is left over from early, hot stages of expansion of universe in the form of microwaves.
PLANET Large body in space that orbits a star and does not produce light of its own
STAR Celestial body of hot gases that radiates energy derived from thermonuclear reactions in the interior
SOLAR SYSTEM Collection of planets and their moons in orbit around a sun, together with smaller bodies such as asteroids, meteoroids and comets
GALAXY Huge group of single stars, star systems, star clusters, dust and gas bound together by gravity
UNIVERSE All observable items, including galaxy clusters, galaxies, stars and planets
HYPOTHESIS Possible explanation for a set of observations or answer to a scientific question; must be testable
NEBULA Large cloud of dust and gas in space
WMAP Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe: satellite that produced a map of microwave background radiation from big bang. Mainly shows density of different areas of universe at its birth.
SUPER CLUSTER Group of several clusters of galaxies formed into one massive cluster.
DARK ENERGY Mysterious force that appears to be causing expansion of the universe to accelerate
DARK MATTER Hypothetical form of matter that is believed to make up 90 % of the matter in universe
HELIUM After Hydrogen was made in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, this was the second element to be made that makes up 25% of the matter in the universe today.
ELEMENT PRODUCTION AS EVIDENCE OF THE BIG BANG The ratio of Hydrogen and Helium that is present (75% and 25%) proves that the Universe is expanding from a single point in time. If the Universe were expanding slower there would be less Helium and more isot
PENZIAS AND WILSON Discovered CMB with a horn antenna in 1963 trying to pick up microwaves from the Milky Way galaxy.
Hot and Cold Spots Attract to one another gravitationally to form planets, stars and galaxies
What does Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation tell us? Hot and Cold Spots and the Composition of the Universe which is mostly Dark energy 68%, Dark Matter 27% and only 5% matter such as stars, planets and galaxies
How does Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation provide Evidence that supports the Big Bang? The Big Bang Theory starts with an extremely hot dense object with an extremely small volume that "explodes" and would have radiation that is detectable today in t
STELLAR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS the creation of elements lithium through iron by the fusion of nuclei of atoms in stars.
SUPERNOVA NUCLEOSYNTHESIS the creation of elements heavier than iron through the fusion of nuclei of atoms in a supernova when a star runs out of fuel and collapses on itself and releases all it's nuclei of atoms Iron or less and a ton or neutrons.
HUBBLE'S LAW The observation that most galaxies appear to be moving away from our galaxy and that the speed at which the galaxies appear to be moving away is related to how far away they are from our galaxy.
MEGAPARSEC A unit of distance used in measuring the distance between galaxies. Is equal to 3.26 million light years.
HUBBLE CONSTANT The amount of recessional velocity of a galaxy is expected to increase as its distance increases.
CEPHEID VARIABLE A star that expands and contracts in a regular repeating cycle. Because of this they are often used to measure distances in space.
CALCULATING REDSHIFT Observed Wavelength / Emitted Wavelength - 1
REDSHIFTING Most galaxies are redshifting, proving the Universe is Expanding.
How does Redshift and Hubble's Law provide evidence of the Big Bang? Redshift indicates that an object is moving away from an observer. The observed redshift vs. distance relationship (the greater the distance from earth the greater the red shift) showing
 

 



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