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Geography

Exam 1

BWTropic of Cancer
Aw Tropical Rainforest (hot with rainy and dry seasons(dry winter)),equator
EF Perpetual Frost(ice cap), no summer, no plants
D Continental(cool)
CS Meditterranean, rare climate of coasts near cold ocean currents, Dry summer, wet winter, specialty crops that will only grow in that climate (California-olives)
CF East coast warm current, no dry season
BW Tropic Of Cancer, Deserts at 30 degrees north and south latitude, often near cold ocean currents, arid climate (<10 inches of pric.)
Af Equator, no dry season (hot and rainy)
Aw Tropic of Capricorn
Bw Tropic of Capricorn
Et Antarctic peninsula, antarctic circle, tundra, short, cold summer, small plants, on permafrost
A Tropical (hot and Rainy)
Am Hot, very rainy and very dry season(Monsoon)
B Dry(Hot,warm, or cool) determined by precipitation first and temperature second
BS Steppe(semi-arid with between 10 inches and 22 of precipitation. grasslands and grain production
C Sub-Tropical(warm, rainy or dry)
Ca Humid(east coasts of continents near warm ocean currents, rainy, deciduous forests, many types of crops)
Cb Marine west coast, near mixing of cold and warm ocean currents at higher altitudes, cool and rainy, temperate rain forests, rarest vegetation type-forestry with little agriculture, 265 days of rain
E Arctic (cold)
H Complex climate changes with rising altitude in mountains (all climate types possible for the altitude), also called vertical or altitudinal zone, vegetation varies resulting in an uneven distribution of agriculture
continental crust thick and light
Oceanic crust Thick and heavy
Convergent plate boundary that moves plates together and collide. 3 types oceanic to continental subduction zone, oceanic to oceanic subductions zone, and continental to continental convergence
divergent plate boundary that moves apart, spreading. Two types: oceanic divergence, and continental divergence
asthenosphere plates collide as they are pushed along by convection cells in the mantle
Oceanic to Oceanic subduction zone One area of oceanic crust slips below another area of oceanic material, and the resulting molten material rises and forms linear volcanic island arcs
oceanic divergence occurs where molten material is rising up from the asthenosphere, forming new crust along an undersea mountain feature called a mid oceanic ridge.
continental divergence occurs where rising convection currents in the asthenosphere result in areas of continent breaking apart along the divergent boundary.
Climates 3 climate controls; latitude, land and water, and altitude
Latitude low latitudes nearer to the equator receive more direct sunlight than higher latitudes nearer to the poles
Maritime less variation in temperature close to oceans
Continental greater variation in temperature farther away from oceans
Altitude temperatures decrease with altitude (for first 10 miles), as you go up a mountain its cooler and as you come down it's warmer
Climate Region Is an area with average (more or less predictable) temperature and precipitation (map) characteristics, Koppen system
Global warming caused by the burning of fossil fuels resulting in greenhouse gassesreleased into the atmosphere.
Human population distribution influenced by physical factors: proximity to coastlines, fresh water availability, rivers, dry areas, heavily forested areas, slope, climate
population equation population=births-deaths+or-migration, yield the raw number of people in a population
Total Fertility rate Average number of children women will have during their childbearing years between ages 15-45,
TFR stable non growth 2.1
TFR Rapid growth >3.0
TFR slow growth 2.4
TFR decreasing population <2.1
TFR Rapidly decreasing population 1.3 or below
What percent of the population live in cities? 60%
Population Pyramids are graphical representations of population structure that give a quick visual depiction of population changes for places (usually nations)
which growth is better for a countries economy? Slow growth, large working cohort can support smaller cohorts of children and the elderly
Rural and Urban migration With advances in agriculture, fewer farmers can supply more food than ever, creating rural surplus labor.
Rural lifestyles create incentives for larger families where children act as farm laborers and 'social security'. children actually produce more food than they consume, and the surplus food is sold and traded
Urban Lifestyles create disincentives for larger families because children are seen as economic burdens in industrial labor societies where children are not significant,contributors to family income, postindustrial economies most urban
What percent of the population is Urban? 50%
Urban Primacy one city within a nation or region has a disproportionate influence on economic, political, and cultural activity, 5 to 10x larger than next biggest city
Overurbanization population of a city grows quicker than social support services (water and power supply, housing, waste disposal) and transportation infrastructure, typical in primate cities in developing and emerging nations
Political Identity Clashes between cultures, economic classes, religions, and ethnic groups
Cultural Nationalism cultural group protects and defends itself against infiltration by other cultural norms.
Ethnocentrism Cultures often blend into one another, forming unique, new cultures
Ethnographic Borders national borders drawn between people of different ethnic groups, and represent traditional territorial divisions.
Geometric boundaries around resources like oil, metals, and farmland, and these borders were drawn without any consideration for the ethnic groups already in place.
Colonialism
Decolonialism former colonies regain political independence, economic disadvantage
The core First to industrialize, driver of globalization, post-industrial economies which control the valuable quaternary sector of the global economy.
What percent of the world population controls all of the wealth? 20% of world population controls 90% of all wealth.
Periphery former colonies and a few other ethnographic areas (Ethiopia) never dominated by colonial powers, developing economies, dependent on primary sector economies.
semi-periphery merging or industrial economies (China), or former colonial powers that never kept pace with economic development in the core (Portugal), dependent on investment and information technology from the core,have manufacturing (secondary) sector economies.
What was the first part of the Americas fully colonized? Caribbean, natives mostly extinct
What is the number one place of export? Jamaica
20 years of globalization resulted in what 3 emergence specialized activities? tourism, assembly plants, and offshore banking.
Where is the biggest offshore banking site? Cayman Islands and Bahamas, 60% can't use offshore banking
In the Caribbean what percent of it is Urban? 60%, over urbanized cities is the norm
What four cities have populations over 1 million? Havana,San Juan, Port-au-Prince, and Santo Domingo
What are social challenges of the Caribbean? HIV infection
What are some environmental challenges of the Caribbean? Deforestation, coastal pollution
Greater Antilles remnant pieces of continents separated from North America by tectonic movement ex. Cuba, Haiti
Lesser Antilles small volcanic islands resulting from a subduction zone along the Caribbean Plate ex. virgin islands, Granada
Rimland Nations are lowlands of continents with swampy coasts
What is the climate and vegetation like on the Caribbean? Tropical Af, Aw, and Bw
What is Creole (Caribbean) Identity? blend of Amerindian, African, and European cultural traditions.
What are the main characteristics of Caribbean culture? Creole Identity, Matriarchal family, religions, languages, and the arts
What is the number of people who speak different languages in the Caribbean? the main languages are Spanish (24 million), French (8 million), English (6 million) and Dutch (1/2 million)
Brain Drain more skilled and educated emigrate
Out Migration occurs toward old colonial powers and the US and Canada.
What was the first Caribbean nation to industrialize? Puerto Rico
Why is the Caribbean an attractive place for transnational corporate factories? cheap labor, less- stringent labor laws, and tax breaks (exempt or reduced corporate taxes).
Free Trade Zones direct foreign investment from core countries like the US, Japan, Taiwan, Canada, and Europe. $3 a day
Offshore Banks located in several island nations, focus on secrecy and zero taxation
What percent of employment does tourism account for in the Caribbean? 30%,
Why are Caribbean nations so dependent on tourism? foreign exchange
How many people speak Spanish or portuguese in Latin America? 2/3rds Spanish speakers, remaining 1/3rd speak Portuguese.
What percent of Latin America is Urban? 75%
What are 3 megapolis's in Latin America? Mexico City, Buenos Aires, and Montevideo
What is a social challenge of Latin America? Has the biggest gap between rich and poor
What percent of the population in Latin America is under 15 years old? 30%
What is an environmental challenge in Latin America? Tropical deforestation in the Amazon Basin and in Central America, the worst air quality in the world (Mexico city)
Topography Plate tectonic processes create most of the region's landforms.
Why are highlands in Latin America economically important for? reserves of valuable minerals, rich volcanic soils, catchment of rainfall supplying agriculture along rivers and irrigation water in dry areas,
Where is the worlds driest desert? Atacama
Tierra Nevada Snow
Tierra Helada Cold, Barren, sheep grazing
Tierra Fria Up to the treeline, Hardy crops (Barley and potatoes), Highest zone in Central America
Tierra Templada Most populated zone, common in Central America, coffee, corn, wheat
Tierra Caliente Hot, tropical, coastal, tropical rain forest, tropical agriculture (Bananas,sugar)
Grasification clearing forest to create cattle pasture
Main characteristics of Latin America language (LA Spanish different from the European form), Brazilian Portuguese different from European form, Religion (catholic predominant)
Where is the most desirable location for high income residents? central cities (downtown)
What are the population sizes in Latin America? 460 million Latin Americans (compared to 300 million for the US); 170 Million Brazilians, 100 million Mexicans; 40 million each in Columbia and Argentina.
What two large civilizations were in Latin America early in time/ Aztec/Maya, Inca 13 million, additional 25 million lived in various other smaller cultures
By 1650, what percent off indigenous peoples population declined by? 90% or 40 million, mostly from disease
Created by: 1174410959280739