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Egan's Ch16 Key Term

Respiratory Therapy Midland College

TermDefinition
Diagnosis The process of identifying the nature and cause of illness.
Differential Diagnosis Signs and symptoms are shared by many diseases and the exact cause is unclear.
Signs Observable effects of an illness.
Symptoms Effects of illness which are only experienced by the patient. (Ex: Breathlessness)
Dyspnea Discomfort in breathing
Breathlessness Uncomfortable urge to breathe; patient cannot catch breath
Orthopnea Dyspnea is triggered when patient is in the reclining position.
Platypnea Dyspnea is triggered when the patient is upright.
Orthodeoxia Oxygen saturation drops when patient is in the upright position.
Trepopnea Dyspnea is relieved when the patient lies on one side.
Cough A forceful maneuver which expels mucus and foreign materials from the airway.
Chronic Cough A cough lasting 8 weeks or longer.
Phlegm (flem) Mucus from tracheobronchial tree which is uncontaminated by oral secretions.
Sputum Mucus from lungs which is coughed up through the mouth.
Purluent Sputum Sputum containing pus
Fetid Sputum Foul-smelling sputum
Mucoid Sputum Sputum which is thick and clear
Hemoptysis Coughing up blood or blood-streaked sputum.
Hematemesis Vomiting Blood from the Gastrointestinal Tract
Angina Coronary artery occlusion which causes pain (nonpleuritic) in the center of the chest.
Fever Body temperature greater than 38.3 degrees celsius.
Pedal Edema Swelling of lower extremeties
Pack-Years Number of packs per day multiplied by the number of years smoked.
Advance Directive The instructions, decided by the patient, on whether or not to resuscitate them.
Cachexia Weakness and unnatural thinness.
Diaphoresis Sweating
Tripodding A position which gives accessory muscles more power to assist in breathing.
Sensorium The patients level of consciousness.
Febrile Description of a patient with a fever.
Hypothermia A body temperature which is lower than normal.
Tachycardia A heart rate greater than 100 bpm.
Bradycardia A heart rate lower than 60 bpm.
Pulsus Paradoxus A decrease of >10 torr in blood pressure during a sudden inspiration.
Pulsus Alternans An alternating succession of strong and weak pulse beats.
Tachypnea A respiratory rate greater than 20 breaths/minute.
Bradypnea A respiratory rate less than 10 breaths/minute.
Systolic Pressure Peak force exerted in arteries when the left ventricle contracts.90-140 torr is considered healthy.
Diastolic Pressure Pressure remaining in arteries after the ventricles have relaxed. 60-90 torr is healthy.
Pulse Pressure Difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressures. 30-40 torr.
Hypertension A blood pressure consistently greater than 140/90
Hypotension Systolic blood pressure less than 90 or mean arterial pressure less than 65
Shock Inadequate delivery of oxygen to vital organs
Hypovolemia Low blood volume
Postural Hypotension Sudden hypotension in hypovolemic patients when sitting or standing.
Syncope Fainting
Kussmaul Sign The jugular venous pressure increases during inhalation
Jugular Venous Distension The jugular vein is enlarged and visible 4cm above the sternal angle.
Lymphadenopathy Enlarged lymph nodes
Barrel Chest Abnormal enlargement of the anterior-posterior diameter of the thoracic cavity.
Retractions Inward sinking of chest wall during inspiration.
Tracheal Tugging Downward movement of thyroid cartilage during inspiration
Kussmaul Breathing Fast, deep, rapid breathing pattern.
Hoover Sign Contraction of lower ribs on inspiration in COPD patients.
Respiratory Alternans Breathing effort alternates between diaphragm and accessory muscles.
Abdominal Paradox Fatigued diaphragm moving in accordance to thoracic pressures.
Subcutaneous Emphysema Air collection in cutaneous tissue from ruptured lung.
Pneumothorax Air collection within the pleural space.
Adventitious Lung Sounds Noise produced by air movement through abnormal airways.
Stridor Loud, high-pitched sound heard on inspiration
Bronchophony Lung sound where vocal noises are more resonant and pronounced
Gallop Rhythm A heart rhythm which includes S3 and S4
Heart Murmur Heart sound caused by backflow through valve, flow through stenotic valve, faster than normal flow through healthy valve.
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Intraabdominal pressures are greater than 20mmHg
Hepatomegaly An enlarged liver.
Clubbing Enlargement of the tips of fingers and toes.
Peripheral Cyanosis Cyanosis of the digits
Central Cyanosis Cyanosis on the trunk