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Module 30

Assessing Intelligence

intelligence tests measure people's mental aptitudes and compare them with those of others using numerical scores
mental age the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance
the Stanford-Binet Lewis Terman's widely used revision of Binet's original intelligence test
Binet and Simon's original test was used to assess academic aptitude, not innate intelligence
intelligence quotient (IQ) - original definition defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100
intelligence quotient (IQ) - current definition current intelligence tests assign a score of 100 to the average performance for a given age and define other scores as deviations from this average
achievement tests measure a person's current knowledge (usually academic in nature)
aptitude tests designed to predict future performance and measure your capacity to learn new information, rather than measuring what you already know
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) the most widely used intelligence test and contains 15 subtests with separate scores for verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed, as well as an overall intelligence score
standardization the process of defining meaningful scores by comparison with a pretested standardization group
normal curve a bell-shaped curve that represents the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes and is symmetrical, with most scores near the average and fewer near the extremes
distribution frequency of occurrence
reliability the extent to which a test produces consistent results
validity the degree to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
content validity a test has content validity to the extent to which it samples teh behavior that is of interest
predictive validity a test has predictive validity to the extent that it predicts the behavior it is designed to predict
criterion-related validity another name for predictive validity
cohort a group of people from a given time period
crystallized intelligence the accumulated knowledge and verbal skills that comes with education and experience
fluid intelligence the ability to reason speedily and abstractly
intellectual disability two criteria that designate intellectual disability are an IQ below 70 and difficulty adapting to the normal demands of independent living
Down syndrome a condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders and is the result of an extra chromosome in the person's genetic makeup