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NM Diagnostic Tools

NPTE Neuromuscular

Ventriculography XR of skull after inj of air into lateral ventricles, to localize tumors or check for ICP
Myelography Spine XR after air/dye injection into subarachnoid space.
Cerebral angiography XR of skull after inj of dye into carotids/vert arteries.
Computed Tomography CT narrow XR beens transmitted to get cross sections of brain that are visualized in 3D. tumor, calcifications, changes in tissue density such as bleeding
MRI magnetic field that produces 3D imaging. Soft tissue and blood flow, bone poorely imaged
PET radioisotopes inhaled/injected. Physiologic mapping for cerebral blood flow, metabolism
Electroencephalography (EEG) electrical activity of brain. Structural disease, seizures, localization of lesions.
Evoked potentials/Evoked responses external stimuli used to evoke potentials in brain. Conduction times
Echoencephalogram reflected US waves recorded – imaging of carotid, flow, detection of plaques, midline shifts
Lumbar Puncture CSF analysis, below L1-L2
EMG detects electrical activity in muscles
Fibrillation spontaneous contractions of individual muscle fibers on EMG. Denervation for 1-3wk after losing nerve
Fasciculations spontaneous contractions of all or most of the fibers in a motor unit, visible muscle twitch. Present with LMN disorders and denervation
Complete LMN lesions show on EMG only fibrillation
Partial LMN lesions show on EMG fibrillation and fasciculations
Nerve conduction Velocity NCV stimulation of peripheral nerves to determine NCV
Decreased NCV seen in peripheral neuropathies with demyelination –GBS, chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy, CMT
Created by: Jenwithonen