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IAMP Echo 1 final

QuestionAnswer
Where do the coronary arteries originate from? The root of the aorta, immediately above the aortic valve.
Where is the sinus of valsalva located? Behind the aortic cusps just above the aortic valve.
There are 3 aortic cusps in the AoV, so there are 3 sinuses of valsalva, how many coronary arteries are there? 2
The left aortic sinus gives rise to the ______. Left Coronary Artery
The right aortic sinus gives rise to the ____. Right Coronary Artery
No vessels arise from the posterior aortic sinus which is therefore known as _____. The non-coronary sinus
The coronary arteries run over the epicardium and penetrate into the ____. Myocardium
Blood flow is from the Epicardium into the Endocardium. The 1st layer to sustain ischemia is the _______. Endocardium, because it is the lase layer ti recieve blood.
What is cardiac ischemia? When the heart wall is recieveing decreased blood flow bc the coronary is partially or completely blocked.
If a stent doesn't work at atherosclerosis, an _____ will be needed. Arterial Bypass
Coronary artery flow occurs during ______. Diastole
RCA flow comes from the ___. RCC- runs anreriorly to the right AV junction and wraps around posteriorly. Then, it branches to the RPD which lays posterior and run toward the apex.
RCA supplies blood to _______. RA, RV, bottom portion of LV and septum.
LCA flow comes from ________. LCC- runs behind the pulmonary trunk for 2-3 cm. then it branches into the LCX and LAD.
LCX runs _____. along the AV junction wraps around posteriorly to face the RCA
LCX supplies blood to the ______. LA and the back of the LV.
LPD runs _____. Downward anteriorly to the apex to face the RPD.
LPD supplies blood to the ______. Front and bottom of the LV and septum.
Great Cardiac Veins The main venious drainage of the LV, lies beside the LAD. It joins the Posterior Cardiac Vein to form the Coronary sinus (in RA)
Besian Veins Small multiple veins that drain directly into the cardiac chamber.
The LV is supplied by which coronary arteries? LAD, LCX, and RPD.
Which walls does the LAD supply? ASW, AFW, SFW
Which walls does the LCX supply? LFW and PFW
What wall does the RPD supply? IFW
Preload Amount of blood in the ventricles before contraction. Peak of R
Afterload Amount of resistance (pressure) the ventricle has to overcome to eject the blood into the arteries.
Frank Starling Law Force of contraction is directly proportional to the degree of myocardial stretch.
Hyperdynamic or Hypercontractile In the case of abnormal increase preload. Larger amount of bloos in diastole comes into the ventricle, increase stretch of muscle and increase force of contraction.
Hypodynamic or Hypocontractile In the case of chronic overload. LV becomes dialated and has poor contraction bc the muscle of the wall is too stretched out.
Most common causes of LV increase preload are... 1. Mitral regurg2. VSD or ASD3. Aortic insufficiency4. Increase in systolic volume secondary to IHD.
Pulmonary Artery Pressure 25/10
Aortic Pressure 120/80
Most common caues of ventricular pressure overload is... Obstructions in the exit zone formed by the LVOT, AoV,and aortic root
LV pressure overload Preaortic obstruction, aortic stenosis, systemic hypertension
RV pressure overload Prepulmonic obstruction, pulmonic stenosis, poat pulmonic stenosis, pulmonis HTN
EDV Amount of blood in the LV at the end diastole. Peak of R
ESV Amount of blood in the LV at the end of systole. Peak of T
SV amount of blood ejected to aorta per heartbeatSV=EDV-ESVnormal value= 70-110 mL
CO Amount of blood ejected per minunetCO=SVxHRnormal value= 4-8 L/min
EF Percentage of blood ejected per beatEF=(EDV-ESV)/EDVx100SV/EDVx100normal value= 60-80%
FS Percentage of displacement of LV wall during each contractionFS=(EDD-ESD)/EDDx100
Created by: garciameagan