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Pharmacology Mod A

for studying

TermDefinition
Drug Therapy treatment with drugs
Diet Therapy treatment with diet (ex. low salt diet)
Physiotherapy treatment with natural physical forces
Psychological Therapy the identification of stressors and methods that can be used to reduce or eliminate stress
Chemical Name chemist; chemical constitution of the drug
Generic Name simpler, used in any country; 1st letter not caps
Brand Name followed by @ name is registered and that the us name is restricted to the owner of the drug
Schedule I Drugs - very high potential for abuse - not currently accepted for medical use in the US - lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision (EX: LSD, peyote, heroin, hashish)
Schedule II Drugs - high potential for abuse - currently accepted for medical use in the US - abuse potential that may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence (EX: amphetamines, morphine, Vicodin, methadone, percadone, ridilin, Adderall)
Schedule III Drugs - high potential for abuse but less than drugs in Schedule I & II - currently accepted for medical use in the US - abuse potential that may lead to moderate/ low physical dependence or high psychological dependence - prescription outdates in 6 mo. and
Schedule IV Drugs - low potential for abuse compared w/ drugs in Schedule III - current accepted for medical use in the US - abuse potential that may lead to limited physical/psychological dependence compared w/ Schedule III - prescription outdates in 6 mo. , no more th
Schedule V Drugs - low potential for abuse compared w/ drugs in Schedule IV - currently accepted for medical use in the US - abuse potential of limited physical/psychological dependence liability compared w/ drugs in Schedule IV; b/c abuse potential is low a prescriptio
Idiosyncratic reaction when something unusual/abnormal happens when a drug is first administered
Allergic Reaction known as hypersensitivity; when immune system has developed antibodies to the drug
7 Right of Medication 1. Drug 2. Dose 3. Documentation 4. Route 5. Reason 6. Patient 7. Time
Placebo Effect occurs when a patient believes he/she had a positive response to a drug, even though the patient did not have any chemically active drug
Nocebo Effect occurs when the patient has negative expectations about therapy and the patient believes that a drug is not working
Pharmokinetics what the body does to the drug the study of the mathematic relationships among the ADME features of individual medicines over time
Absorption movement of the drug into the blood stream
Bioavailability what comes out from the liver to be effective
Enteral drug administration directly into the GI tract; oral
Parenteral use of subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intravenous injections (IV)
Percutaneous drug absorbed through the skin/mucous membrane (under tongue or topical)
Inhalation inhaled into the lungs; immediately available
Nurses are governed by: - scope of practice - nurse standards act - standards of care - policies and procedures
Half-life Time needed for 1/2 drug to be removed; half then half; 12-6-3; the amount of time required for 50% of the drug to be eliminated from the body
Steady-state 4-5 half-lifes; drug is removed by elimination
Factors that impact drug therapy effectiveness 1. Dose 2. Route 3. Health status 4. Gender 5. Nutrition/fluid balance 6. Genetics
Pharmacotherapies - treat disease process using drugs - outcome; relieve symptoms; cure disease - contradictions; reasons why you should not use; pregnancy
Acute Therapy short term; strep
Maintenance high blood pressure; managing
Supplemental needed to main; insulin
Palliative comfort care, usually end of life; receiving treatment
Supportive IV needed to balance; vomiting diarrhea
Prophylactic prevention of illness during procedure; ortho, antibiotic given preventively
Pharmacognosy (4 major sources for drugs) - plants - animals - minerals - synthetic
If a med error occurs - go check patient - give assessment - incident report in entirety - be accountable
Idosyncratic not predictable strong reaction pt. cannot metabolize drug
TALL MAN LETTERING to differentiate meds
High alert drugs Similar spelling; can cause harm; similar looks
Pharmacology study of drugs
Therapeutic methods various approaches to therapy
Drugs chemical substances that have an effect on living organisms
Prescription Drugs require an order by a health professional who is licensed to prescribe drugs
Nonprescription Drugs sold w/o a prescription in a pharmacy or in a health section
Over the counter drugs (OTC) sold w/o a prescription in a pharmacy or in a health section
Illegal Drugs "recreational drugs" drugs/chemicals used for a nontherapeutic purpose. NOT approved by the FDA
Pharmacodynamics the study and/or interactions with drugs and their receptors and the series of events that result in a pharmacologic response
Agonists drugs that interact with a receptor to stimulate a response
Partial agonists drugs that interact with a receptor to stimulate a response but inhibit other responses
Antagonists drugs that attach to a receptor but DO NOT stimulate a response
Distribution refers to ways in which drugs are transported throughout the body by the circulating body fluids to the sites of action or to the receptor that the drug effects
Drug blood level blood test taken to show levels of drugs that are active in the system
Metabolism the process whereby the body inactivates drugs
Excretion -the elimination of drugs, metabolites and in some cases, the drug itself -2 primary sites or routes of excretion are the feces, and renal tubules into the urine
Desired action when a drug enters the patient and is then absorbed and distributed the desired action occurs
Side effects response when a drug affects more than one body system
Common adverse effects same as side effects only mild effects
Serious adverse effects can lead to toxicity
Drug interaction when the action of one drug is altered or changed by the action of another drug and can either increase or decrease the actions of one or both drugs (tetracycline and antacids 3-4 apart)
Unbound drug The fraction of drug in serum that is not bound to a carrier protein or other molecule, which generally is pharmacologically active
Additive effect two drugs with similar actions are taken for an increased effect (hydrocodone + acetaminophen = added analgesic effect)
Synergistic effect the combined effect of two drugs is greater than the sum of the effect of each drug given together (aspirin + codeine = much greater analgesic effect)
Antagonistic effect one drug interferes with the action of another (tetracycline + antacid = decreased absorption of the tetracycline)
Displacement the displacement of the first drug from protein binding sites by a second drug increases the activity of the first drug because MORE UNBOUND DRUG IS AVAILABLE (warfarin + valproic acid = increased anticoagulant effect
Interference the first drug inhibits the metabolism or excretion of the second drug, thereby causing increased activity of the second drug (probenecid + ampicillin = prolonged antibacterial activity of ampicillin b/c probenecid blocks the renal excretion of ampicillin
Incompatibility the first drug is chemically incompatible with the second drug, thereby causing denaturation when the drugs are mixed in the same syringe/solution and administered at the same time signs: haziness, formation for a precipitate, or a change in the color o
Gender-specific medicine a developing science that studies differences in the normal function of men and women and addresses how people of each gender perceive and express disease(angina; women will present with nausea, indigestion, and upper back and jaw pain)(men will present w
Placebo a drug dosage that has no pharmacologic activity because the dosage has no active ingredient
Tolerance occurs when a person begins to require a high dosage of a medication to produce the same effects that a lower dosage once provided
Drug dependence also known as addiction/habituation, occurs when a person is unable to control his/her desire for ingestion of drugs
Drug accumulation when a drug accumulates in the body and the next drug is administered before the previously administered dose has been metabolized/excreted. may result in drug toxicity
Carcinogenicity the ability of a drug to induce living cells to mutate and become cancerous
Hydrolysis the process that uses water to initiate a chemical reaction
Intestinal transit refers to the speed at which the intestine moves foods, secretions, and other ingested matter along, and this rate varies with age
Protein binding drugs that are relatively insoluble are transported in the circulation by being bound to plasma proteins; especially albumin
Drug metabolism the process whereby the body inactivates medicines controlled by factors like genes, diet, age, health, and the maturity of enzyme systems
Metabolites the products of metabolism and in some cases the active drug itself are eventually secreted from the body
Therapeutic drug monitoring the measurement of a drugs concentration in biologic fluids to correlate the dosage administered and the level of medicine in the body with the pharmacologic response Assay's of blood samples/saliva are tested Essential in neonates, infants, and chi
Polypharmacy changes in advancement in age that causes medications to have to change
Teratogens cause abnormal development of key tissues if they at taken at a certain time during gestation; cause birth defects
Genetics the study of how living organisms inherit the characteristics of traits of heir ancestors, such as hair color, eye color
Genome the complete package of genetic coding of an organism Genome is composed of 23 chromosomes 22 autosomal 1 sex characteristic
Polymorphisms naturally occurring variations in the structures of genes and the instruction that they give to the organism
Pharmacogenetics a unfolding science based on genetics, which is the study of how drug response may vary in accordance w/ inherited differences
3 teaspoons 1 tablespoon
2 tablespoons 1 ounce
8 ounces 1 glass
1000 ml 1 liter
1000 micrograms 1 milligram (mg)
1000 milligrams (mg) 1 gram (g)
1000 grams 1 kilogram (kg)
5 ml 1 teaspoon
30 ml 1 ounce
1 quart 1 liter
30 g 1 ounce
2.2 lb 1 kg
2.54 cm 1 in
Evidence-based practice the application of data from scientific research to make clinical decisions about the care of individual patients
Pure Food and Drug Act 1906
Harrison Narcotic Act 1914
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act 1938
Durham-Humphrey Amendment 1951
Kefauver-Harris Amendment 1962
Controlled Substance Act 1970
Nursing implications LEGAL liability, negligence, malpractice
Nursing implications ETHICAL acting on behalf of patient w/ their best interest
Cognitive Domain the level at which basic knowledge is learned & stored "thinking"
Affective Domain the feelings & beliefs a patient has about what he/she understands "opinions/values"
Psychomotor Domain involves the learning of a new procedure/skill "doing"
Dependent Nursing Action performed by the nurse on the basis of the healthcare provider's orders (ex: medications/treatments)
Interdependent Nursing Action actions that the nurse implements cooperatively w/ other members of the healthcare team for restoring/maintaining the patient's health
Independent Nursing Action actions that are not prescribed and that a nurse can provide by virtue of the education and licensure that he/she has attained
5 steps of the nursing process ADPIE Assessement Diagnosis Planning Implementation Evaluation
Nursing process the foundation for the clinical practice of nursing
Trough lowest blood level of medicine
Polypharmacy multidrug therapy
Anaphylactic Reaction patient has a severe, life-threatening reaction that caused respiratory distress or cardiovascular collapse
Nursing can have controlled substance in hand only when: 1. giving to a patient under physician's order 2. the nurse is a patient under physician's order 3. nurse is official custodian of limited supply of controlled substance on a unit/dept. of a hospital
Created by: Smccunn