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Atoms & Elements

Neutron particles that have no charge
Proton particles that have a positive
Electron Particles that have a negative charge
Periodic Table A table that shows the elements, their atomic number, symbol, and average atomic mass; elements with similar chemical properties are grouped together.
Compound A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom and the number of electrons in an atom
period A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table. It tells you the number of energy levels an atom has.
column A column on the periodic table. It tells you the number of electrons on the last energy level
electron shell An energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom.
valence electrons Electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
Covalent bond A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Ions Charged atoms Charged particles. when a molecule gains or looses an electron
cation A positively charged ion
malleable capable of being shaped
ductile A term used to describe a material that can be pulled out into a long wire.
luster The way a mineral reflects light
corrosive (adj.) having the tendency to erode or eat away (The effect of the chemical was highly corrosive.)
semiconductor A substance that can conduct electricity under some conditions A material that when combined with some other material can be turned into an insulator or a conductor.
Alkali Metals Group 1, 1 electron in outer level, very reactive, soft, silver, shiny, low density; Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium
Alkaline Earth metals metallic elements in group 2 of the periodic table which are harder than the alkali metals and are also less reactive
Halogens Group 17. the poisonous group of elements containing Cl, F, I, etc
Diatomic Molecule The simplest molecules contain only two atoms. H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
conductivity A material's ability to allow heat to flow The ability of an object to transfer heat or electricity to another object.
Transition metals The elements in Groups 3-12 are transition metals. They are usually less reactive than other metals. They are able to be easily shaped. Metallic.
synthetic elements Elements which do not occur naturally and are made in laboratories.
Boiling point The temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas
Melting point The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid