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Cells Study Guide

organelles tiny structures inside a cell
cell wall a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds plant cells
cell membrane surrounds the cell when there is no cell wall
nucleus the control center of the cell
chromatin thin strands that contain genetic material
cytoplasm the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus
mitochondria rod-shaped organelles that create energy
endoplasmic reticulum a maze of passageways that carries protein from one cell to another
ribosomes small, grainlike bodies that produce proteins
golgi bodies collections of sacs and tubes that distribute proteins
chloroplasts organelles that capture energy from the sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
vacuole a large sac that stores food and other materials in the cell
lysosomes small, round structures that break down food and recycle old cell parts
prokaryotes organisms whose cells lack a nucleus
eukaryotes cells that have a nucleus
element any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
atom the smallest unit of an element
compound when two or more elements combine chemically, they form this
molecule the smallest unit of most compounds
organic compounds most compounds that contain carbons
inorganic compounds compounds that do not contain the element carbon
carbohydrate an energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
proteins large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in some cases, sulfur
amino acids small molecules that make protein
enzyme a type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
lipids energy-rich organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
nucleic acids very large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid that is passed from parent to offspring and directs all of the cell's functions
RNA ribonucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins
Created by: coltonbinnion