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Chapter 3

General anatomy & Radiographic positioning terminology

Four fundamental body planes Sagittal, Oblique, Horizontal Coronal
Sagittal plane Divides the body into left and right segments
Coronal plane Divides the body into anterior and posterior segments
Horizontal plane Divides the body into superior and inferior segments
Oblique plane Pass through a body at any angle
Interilliac plane transects the pelvis at the top of the illiac crest at the level of 4L
Occlusal plane Formed by the biting surface of the upper and lower teeth with the jaws closed
Two body cavities Thoracic, Abdominopelvic
Two Division of the abdomen Quadrants & Regions
Four quadrants of the abdomen LUQ RUQ LLQ RLQ
9 regions of the abdomen Epigastric region (epigastrium) Left hypochondrium (LHC) Right hypochondrium (RHC) Umbilical region Left lumbar region Right lumbar region Hypogastric region Right iliac fossa (RIF) Left iliac fossa (LIF
Body habitus Common variation in the shape of the body
Habitus affects the locations of heart, Lungs, Diaphragm, stomach, Colon & Gallblader
Four majpr type of Habitus and approximate frequencies Sthenic 50%, Hyposthenic 35%, Asthenic 10%, Hypersthenic 5%
Anatomic position standing erect, facing directly forward, feet pointed forward and slightly apart, and arms hanging down at the sides with palms facing forward.
Anatomy study of the structure of organisms and their parts
Physiology study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which works within a living system
Osteiology Study of the bones
Bone functions Muscle attachment Mechanical basis for movement Supports body frame Storage for calcium and other salts Production of red ad white blood cells Protection of internal organs
C1 Mastoid tip
C2, C3 Gonion (angle of mandible)
C3,C4 Hyoid bone
C5 Thyroid cartilage
C7, T1 Vertebra prominens
T1 Approximately 2 inches (5 cm) above jugular notch
T2,T3 Jugular notch
T4, T5 Sternal angle
T7 Inferior angles of scapulae
T9, T10 Xiphoid process
L2, L3 Inferior costal margin
L4, L5 Most superior aspect of iliac crests
S1, S2 Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
Coccyx Greater trochanters (and pubic symphysis)
Axial Skeleton Skull Neck Thorax Vertebral column
Neck Hyoid
skull Cranial 8 Facial 14 Auditory ossicles 6
Thorax Sternum 1 Ribs 24
Vertebral column Cervical 7 Thoracic 12 Lumbar 5 Sacrum 1 Coccyx 1
Appendicular skeleton Shoulder girdle Upper limbs Lower limbs Pelvic girdle
Shoulder girdle Clavicles 2 Scapulae 2
Upper limbs Humeri 2 Ulnae 2 Radii 2 Carpals 16 Metacarpals 10 Phalanges 28
Lower limbs Femora 2 Tibias 2 Fibulae 2 Patellae 2 Tarsals 14 Metatarsals 10 Phalanges 28
Pelvic girdle Hip bones 2
Layers of bone tissue Periosteum- Tough fibrous connective tissue Compact bone – strong, dense outer layer Trabeculae – inner spongy layer filled with red and yellow marrow Medullary cavity – central cavity in long bones Endosteum – lining of the medullary cavity
Long bones are divided into two portions Diaphysis Epiphysis
Blood vessels and the nerves enter and exit the bone through the nutrient foramen
Two types of ossification Intermembranous Endochondral
Endochondral occurs in long, short, and irregular bones
Two centers of Endochondrial ossification Primary ossification – occurs primarily in utero Secondary ossification – occurs in the metaphysis and epiphysis portions of immature bone
Intermembranous occurs mainly in flat bones
5 Classification of bones Long Short Flat Irregular Sesamoid
Long bone found and example Found only in the limbs Examples: femur, metacarpals, radius
Short bone features and example Consist mostly of cancellous bone, with a thin outer layer of compact bone Contain red marrow Examples: carpals and tarsals only
Flat bone features and example Consist of two tables of compact bone with an inner layer of diploë Contains red marrow Examples: cranial bones, sternum, scapula Provide protection and sites for muscle attachments
Irregular bone features and example Variety of shapes, thus the name Composed of exterior compact bone with inner cancellous bone filled with red marrow Examples: vertebrae, pelvic bones
Sesamoid bone features and example Develop within and beside tendons Small and oval Examples: patella, two at metatarsophalangeal joint of great toe
Arthrology study of joints
Two classifications of joints Functional Structural
3 Functional joints Synarthroses – immovable Amphiarthroses – partially moveable Diarthroses – freely moveable
Three structural joint classifications Fibrous – no joint cavity; generally immovable Cartilaginous – no joint cavity; generally immovable or only slightly movable Synovial – surrounded by an articular capsule that forms the joint cavity; freely movable and the most complex
Three types of Fibrous joints Syndemosis Suture Gomphosis
Four types of Synovial joints Hinge Gliding Pivot Ellipsoid
Condyle Round process at an articular extrmity
Coracoid or coronoid Beak-like or crown-like process
Crest Ridge-like process
Epicondyle Projection above a condyle
Facet Small smooth-surfaced process for articulation with another structure
Hamulus Hook-shaped process
Head Expanded end of a long bone
Horn Hornlike process on a bone
Line Less prominent ridge than a crest; a linear elevation
Malleolus Club-shaped process
Protuberance Projecting part or prominence
Spine Long, pointed process
Trochanter Either of two large, rounded, and elevated processes (greater or major and lesser or minor) located at the junction of the neck and shaft of the femur
Tuberosity Large, rounded, and elevated process
Tubercle Small, rounded, and elevated process
Fissure Cleft or deep groove
Foramen Hole in a bone for transmission of blood vessels and nerves
Fossa Pit, fovea, or hollow space
Groove Shallow linear channel
Meatus Tube-like passageway running within a bone
Notch Indentation into the border of a bone
Sinus Recess, groove, cavity, or hollow space, such as:
a recess or groove in bone used to designate a channel for venous blood on the inner surface of the cranium;
an air cavity in bone or a hollow space in other tissue used to designate a hollow space within a bone, as in paranasal sinuses
Sulcus Furrow, trench, or fissurelike depression
4 Type of bone fracture Closed Displaced Nondisplaced Open
Closed bone fracture Doesn't break through the skin
Displaced Bones are nt in anatomic allignment
nondisplaced Bone retains its normal alignment
Open Broken bones project through the skin
Anterior Front part
Posterior Back part
Caudad Parts away from the head
Ceaphalad Parts towards the head of the body
Inferior Situated below
Superior Situated above
Ceantral Middle or main part
Peripheral Near the surface, edge or outside
Contralateral Opposite side of the body
Ipsilateral Same side of the body
Lateral Away from the middle of another body part
Medial Towards the median plane of a body
Deep Far from the surface
Supeficial Near the surface of the skin
Distal Furthest from the point of attachment
Proximal Near the point of attachment
External Outside an organ or body
Internal Inside of an organ
Parietal Lining of a body cavity
Visceral Covering of an organ
Dorsum Anterior surface of the foot or posterior surface of the hand
Palmer Palm of the hand
Planter Sole of the foot
Projection Path of the CR as it exist the x-ray tube and goes through the patient to the IR
Anteroposterior projection Enters anterior and exist posterior
Posteroanterior projection Enters posterior and exist anterior
Axial projection Longitudinal angulation of the CR
Tangential projection CR is directed towards the outer margin of a curved body surface
Lateral projection Passes transversly along the coronal plane and exist the opposite
Lateromedial/Mediolateral Lateral projections of limbs
Transthoracic projection Shoulder radiograph
Oblique projection CR enters at an angle following an oblique plane
Positions Overall poster of the patient in relation to the IR
Upright Erect
Seated Patient is sitting but upright
Recumbent Lying down in any postion
Supine Lying on the back
Prone Ling face down
Trendelenburg Supine with head tilted downward
Fowler Supine with head higher than feet
Sims Left anterior recumbent with left leg extended and right knee and thigh partially flexed
Lithotomy Supine with knees and hip flexed and thighs abducted and rotated externally. Knee support is used
Decubutus Patient is lying down and CR is horizontal and parallel with the floor
Lordotic Patient leaned backward so that the shoulder is the onky thing in contact with the IR
View The body part as seen by the IR
Abduction From central axis
adduction Towards the central axis
Extention Straightening of a joint
Flexion Bending of a joint
Hyperextension Forced extension of a limb or joint
Hyperflexion Over flexion
Evert/Eversion Outward turning of the foot
Invert/inversion Inward turning of the foot
Pronate Rotation of the forearm,palm down
Supnate Rotation of the forearm, palm up
Rotate Rotating the body or body part along its axis
Circumduct Circular movement of a limb
Tilt tipping or slanting a body part slightly
Deviation Turning away from regular standard
Dorsiflexion Flexion or bending of the foot towards the leg
Planter flexion Flexion or bending of the foot downward the sole
Created by: iphil_cristiano