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Pharm 5018 ETSU NP

cH 12 Pharmacoeconomics

Pharmacoeconomic Studies Designed to only look at economic impact of therapy Need to think of clinical impact Components of well-designed studies
Pharmacoeconomic Studies Point of view/Types of costs/Direct/Indirect/Intangible
Cost of Illness Analysis The costs of a specific disease in a given population/ Costs of resources needed to treat illness/Costs of nonmedical resources/Loss of productivity
Cost-Minimization Analysis Compares the costs of two or more treatment alternatives that are considered equal in efficacy Compares cost of drugs within a class
Cost-Minimization Analysis Compares the costs of two or more treatment alternatives that are considered equal in efficacy Compares cost of drugs within a class
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Two or more treatments/programs that are not necessarily therapeutically equivalent Measures effectiveness in therapeutic outcomes vs. dollars saved
Cost-Benefit Analysis The costs of a specific treatment or intervention are calculated and then compared with the dollar value of the benefit received. Compare and determine greatest benefit for the dollar spent.
Cost-Benefit Analysis Cost-benefit ratio Difference in two therapies
Cost-Utility Analysis Costs of the treatment choice are in dollars and the outcomes are expressed in terms of pt/pref or quality-adjusted life years/ Used when quality of life is a factor
Generic Drugs Generic drugs may or may not be less expensive. Pharmacy coverage may determine whether a generic is used.
Generic Drugs Tiered benefit Lower co-pay for generic drugs Retail prescription drug programs
Generic Substitution 69% of prescriptions are filled with generic drugs. Prescriber influenced by Innovator company
Generic Substitution Payer Patient Innovator companies support for health care
Bioequivalence The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates and sets standards for bioequivalence. FDA Orange Book: Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations
Bioequivalence Available online/Search by active ingredient/Search by proprietary name/Updated daily
Pharmacoeconomics in Practice Prescribing generic vs. brand-name drugs Pharmacist may substitute a less expensive drug that is therapeutic equivalent. “Dispense as Written”
Pharmacoeconomics in Practice Patients may switch due to costs and prescription benefit. Retail drug programs
Pharmacoeconomics in Practice Walmart, Target, Kroger, Sam’s Club $4 for a 30-day supply of common generic drugs
Medicare Part D Covers 75% of drug costs once the patient pays a deductable of $250/year Prescription costs between $250 and $2,250 costs the patient 25% of the price of the medication
Medicare Part D Patient pays 100% between $2,250 and $5,100 Prescriptions covered 100% after $5,100/year
Changes to Part D Due to Reform 2010 enrollees in the “doughnut hole” will get $250 rebate. 2011 enrollees will get a 50% discount on brand-name drugs during the gap.
Changes to Part D Due to Reform Drug costs in the gap will be gradually reduced from 100% to 25% by 2020. 50% for brand-name drugs/25% for generic drugs
Conclusion Pharmacoeconomics influence every prescription. Understand your generic equivalents. Consult with pharmacist.
Conclusion Use Orange Book. Collaborate with the patient regarding costs.
Conclusion Generic vs. brand-name drugs Ask about their prescription coverage.
Created by: palmerag