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Pharm 5018

Ch 7 Cultural and Ethnic Influences in Pharmacotherapeutics

QuestionAnswer
Ethnopharmacology Study of racial differences in drug metabolism and response/Underlying genetic reasons for differences in efficacy
Cultural Awareness Leininger, in her Culture Care Sunrise Model/Assess the patient in his or her environmental context in seven areas /Technological/Religious/Social and kinship
Cultural Awareness Cultural values/Political/legal/Economic/Educational factors
Standards of Cultural Competency National Standards of Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services /Professional interpreters/Education and training of staff on providing culturally appropriate care/Providing culturally appropriate teaching materials
African Americans Demographics: 13.6% of U.S. population /15.8% uninsured Cultural factors Health belief: Health is a gift from God, and illness and suffering are God’s will or are caused by evil influences. Folk healers and folk medicine
African Americans Racial differences in pharmacokinetics and response Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may not work as well d/o Af Am having less renin-dependent htn. Af Am respond diff to alcohol, psychotropic drugs, & caffeine than whites; have higher blood levels, faster therapeutic response, higher rate of extra pyramidal effects than whites.
American Indians-Alaska Natives Called First Nations in Canada /Demographics/560 different /tribes/1.6% of U.S. population /30.5% under age 15 years
American Indians-Alaska Natives High unemployment/Shorter life expectancy /U.S. Indian Health Service provides no-cost comprehensive health care to federally recognized tribes./29.2% uninsured
American Indians-Alaska Natives Health is harmony with nature and oneself./Illness is seen as an imbalance of mind, body, and spirit./Belief in a Supreme Being /Medicine bags may be worn. /Little information on pharmacokinetics in American Indians
Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Demographics /5% of U.S. population /Diverse: 20 different /subgroups /Higher median income/More educated (50% have bachelor’s degree)
Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Lower unemployment /Health care utilization/Well-insured /15.4% uninsured
Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Health beliefs and practices/Fatalistic attitude /Believe that health is a result of forces that rule the world/Illness results when there is an imbalance in the forces/May use acupuncture, acupressure, tai chi, moxibustion, or medicinal herbs/Vietnamese may use cupping
Hispanics/Mexicans Demographics: 16.3% of U.S. population/62.9% born in the United States /Mexicans (63%), Puerto Ricans (9.2%), Cubans (3.5%), and people from Central and South America /34.3% under age 18 /25.8% under poverty line
Hispanics/Mexicans 11.5% unemployment, not including migrant workers/Heath care utilization /30% uninsured /Data difficult to collect due to undocumented status of many Hispanics
Hispanics/Mexicans Health beliefs : Illness results from an imbalance of hot, cold, wet, dry/Illness may also be caused by mal ojo (“evil eye”)/Hispanics typically consult both traditional healers and allopathic providers/May or may not follow the modern medicine prescribed
Hispanics/Mexicans Common illnesses: Obesity/Type II diabetes /Asthma in children
Non-Hispanic Whites German, Polish, and Italian Americans see stress and environmental changes as sources of illness. Polish and Italian Americans may use folk remedies and native healers
Created by: palmerag