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Aerosol Final Exam

What type of Hypoxia is caused by low arterial oxygen tension (PaO2)? Hypoxic Hypoxia
What type of Hypoxia is caused by inadequate carrying capacity? Anemic Hypoxia
What type of Hypoxia is caused by the inability to metabolize oxygen? Histotoxic Hypoxia
What type of Hypoxia is caused by inadequate blood flow? Circulatory Hypoxia
What is an aerosol? A suspension of solid or liquid particles in a gas
What is a humidity deficit? A condition in which the available humidity is less than the potential humidity
What is absolute humidity? Actual mass or content of water in a measure volume of air
What is relative humidity? Ratio of actual water vapor present in a gas to the capacity of the gas to hold vapor at a given temperature
What is a humidifier? Device that adds molecular water to a gas
What is humidity? The amount of water vapor in a system expressed as weight/volume
What is BTPS? Body Temperature, Ambient Pressure, Saturated
What is the ISB? Isothermic Boundary: the point at which inspired gas reaches BTPS; normally located 5 cm below the carina
What is Brownian Diffusion? Random molecular collisions cause some particles to contact and be deposited
What is Interial Impaction? Medication impacts and deposits on the airway walls
What is Refractory Hypoxemia? Oxygen levels do not respond to oxygen therapy
What are the Heliox factors? 80.20 (1.8), 70/30 (1.6), 60/40 (1.4)
What is the formula for Heliox calculations? Factor x Flow Meter Setting = Actual Flow
What is the tank factor for an H(or K) tank? 3.14
What is the tank factor for a G tank? 2.41
What is the tank factor for an E tank? 0.28
What is the formula for calculating tank duration? psig x factor/ flow (lpm) = # of min left in tank
What is the primary function of the upper respiratory tract? Warm, filter, and humidify inspired air
What are the hazards of breathing anhydrous (dry) gas? Retained secretions, mucus plugging, and airway irritation
How much water per day do our lungs contribute to saturate inspired gas? 250 mL/day
What is the normal water vapor content in the lungs? 44 mg/L
What is the normal water vapor pressure in the lungs? 47 mmHg
What are the indications of humidity therapy? Supply humidity to dry gas, bypassed upper airway (ETT/Trach), upper airway edema, bronchial hygiene, sputum induction
What are the hazards associated with humidity therapy? Wheezing or bronchospasm, swelling of inspissated secretions, infection, overhydration, airway burns, caregiver exposure, electric shock
List the LOX (Liquid O2) calculations - One liter LOX = 860 liters of gaseous O2 - One liter of LOX weighs 2.5 lbs - One pound of LOX = 344 liters of gaseous O2
What are the indications for warming inspired gas? Bypassed upper airway (ETT/Trach)
What are the indications for cool bland aerosol? Croup, epiglottitis, post extubation stridor
What are the factors affecting humidifier efficiency? Temperature, Surface Area, Contact time, Flow
What are the three main types of humidifier? HME, Bubble, Passover
How does a passover humidifier work? Directs gas over the surface of a volume of water
How does a bubble humidifier work? Gas flows down into a reservoir of water through a hollow tube with diffusing element at the bottom; diffuser breaks down gas flow into tiny bubble, which float to the surface and create humidity by way of evaporation
How does an HME humidifier work? "Artificial Dose"- captures exhaled heat and moisture, which is the applied to the subsequent inspiration
What type of humidifier is most suitable for a nasal cannula and what liter flow is humidity required? Bubble humidifier for >4 LPM
What are the indications for aerosol therapy? To deliver medication, promote bronchial hygiene, sputum inducement, humidify dry gas
What are the hazards associated with aerosol therapy? Adverse reaction to medication (primary), infection, airway reactivity/bronchospasm, systemic side effects
What is the primary method of deposition for particles <3 um? Brownian Diffusion
What is the primary method of deposition for particles >5 um? Intertial Impaction
What is the ideal particle size for low airway deposition? 2-5 um
What is the ideal particle size for alveolar deposition? 1-3 um
Which bronchodilators are delivered via aerosol? All except Xanthines
Which bronchodilators are NOT delivered via aerosol? Xanthines
What are the two main types of nebulizers? Jet and Ultrasonic
How does a standard SVN work? Pressurized gas source delivers a jet stream of air down a narrow tube and through a narrow opening to a baffle
How does an SVN with aerosol collection bag work? Bag reservoirs hold the aerosol generated during exhalation and allow the small particles to remain in suspension for next breath
How does a breath actuated SVN work? Generates aerosol only on inspiration
How does a breath enhanced SVN work? Generate aerosol continuously, using a system of vents and one-way valve to minimize aerosol waste
How does a GIN nebulizer work? Provider high output aerosol therapy with a wide range of inspired oxygen concentrations
How does a USN nebulizer work? Uses a piezoelectric crystal to generate aerosol
What is the most common hazard associated with inhaled corticosteroids Thrush
What medication is delivered by a SPAG? Ribivirin (Virazole)
What is the brand name for Dornase Alfa? Pulmozyme
What is the brand name for Cromolyn Sodium? Intal
What is the brand name for Budesonide? Pulmicort
What is the ideal body position and breathing pattern for an SVN? Seated upright; normal breathing with occasion deep breath and breath hold
What is the ideal body position and breathing pattern for an MDI? Upright; exhale completely and activate MDI at the start of inspiration, take a full deep breath and hold for 10 sec
What is the ideal body position and breathing pattern for a DPI? Upright; exhale completely, form a tight seal around DPI and take a strong, deep breath, hold for 10 sec. Move DPI away from mouth before exhalation
What is the purpose of the breath hold during a breathing treatment? Improve medication deposition
What aerosol delivery devices are used with nebulizers? Aerosol mask, face tent, T-piece adapter, trach collar or mask
What is the purpose of priming an MDI? Ensures correct dose of medication is delivered
What is the purpose of a spacer? Improve medication delivery
How does an MDI work? Each activation (squeeze) dispenses a set dose of medication for the patient to inhale
How does a DPI work? Creates an aerosol when the patient's inspiratory effort draws air through the device, thereby lifting the powdered medication from the drug reservoir, blister pack, or capsule
What are the advantages of a DPI? Small and portable, built-in dose counter, propellant-free, breath-actuated, short preparation, and administration time
What is the most common dosage of an MDI? 100-200 ug/ actuation
What are the brand names of the DPIs? Aerosolizer, HandiHaler, Turbuhaler, Twisthaler, Diskus
How do you clean and disinfect an SVN? Disassemble and wash in warm soapy water, soak in a 1:3 vinegar mix for 1 hr, rinse with sterile water, air dry
Created by: ashconrad417