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CG Unit 1 AP Psych

History and Memory

Contemporary Psychology is The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
The first psychological laboratory was established by Wilhelm Wundt
William James prominent American functionalist
Mary Calkins Student of William James and first female president of the American Psychological Association
Humanistic psychologists study the importance of healthy growth potential
John Watson psychology is "the scientific study of observable behavior"
psychological differences between men and women are attributed to nature vs. nurture
Charles Darwin the inheritance of behavioral characteristics
the bio-psychological approach understanding of social-cultural influences integrated within multiple levels of analysis
Memory The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Encoding The processing of information into the memory system--for example, by extracting meaning
Storage The retention of encoded information over time
Retrieval The process of getting information out of memory storage
Sensory memory The immediate very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
Short-term memory Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
Long-term memory The relatively persistent and limitless storehouse of the memory system, includes knowledge,skills, and experiences
Working memory A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of becoming auditory and visual-spatial information and of information retrieved from long-term memory
Parallel processing The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously, the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions.
Automatic processing Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency and of well-learned information such as word meanings
Rehearsal The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
Spacing effect The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
Serial position effect Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Visual encoding The encoding of picture images
Acoustic encoding The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
Semantic encoding The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
Imagery Mental pictures, a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
Mnemonics Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
Chunking Organizing items into familiar, manageable units, often occurs automatically
Iconic memory A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
Echoic memory A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
Long-term potentiation An increase in synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
Flashbulb memory A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Amnesia The loss of memory
Implicit memory Retention independent of conscious recollection
Explicit memory Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
Hippocampus A neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.
Recall A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill in the blanks test
Recognition A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
Relearning A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
Priming The activation, often unconsciously of particular associations of memory
Deja Vu that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before" Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
State Dependent memory The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
Proactive interference The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
Retroactive interference The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Repression In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Misinformation effect Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
Source amnesia Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
Created by: 1019697881