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Site Work usually performed by professionals
Legal History Title search Usually performed by a professional such as an attorney or title search agency
Legal History Check to see that no outstanding liens are held against the property;All previous title transfers correctly recorded; Zoning status ;Master plan for the local municipality
Legal History Transportation plans;Property zoning setback requirements Easements;Future plans for the land and surrounding areas and Boundaries
Physical Characteristics General topography of the property which impact site development costs;Existing utilities (above ground, utility boxes) Neighborhood demographics and characteristics;Drainage
Physical Characteristics Soil conditions composition of the soils;Compaction test results Geology of the area
Consolidation Means the removal of water-filled porosity; For most engineering purposes, the denser a soil is the better its load-bearing capacity; To make a soil more dense requires removing as much of the porosity as possible.
Soil compaction Removal of air-filled porosity
Soil mechanics Deals with soil response to physical stress; Stress may be weight of a building, vehicle traffic, or various other forces; Various classification systems have been devised to evaluate soil suitability for engineering purposes.
Soil consistency Refers to the soil's response to stress
Stress Pressure applied to the soil; In physics, pressure is force per area; Force applied to soil is normally weight.
Strain The response to stress
Yield point Point at which a material fails (deformability and firmness of a soil); Often plotted as a function of stress by engineers.
Soil Classification Systems (1) a grain-size distribution curve (or gradation curve), and (2) the Atterberg limits (or soil consistency). The grain-size analysis can be either mechanical or with a hydrometer analysis.
Most widely used classification systems Unified Soil Classification System (USCS); American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
Triangular soil classification U.S. Department of Agriculture developed a grain size classification system that names soils depending on the percentages of sand, silt, and clay.
Atterberg Limits System used to describe the shrinkage limit, plastic limit, and liquid limit of a soil. ;As water is added to a dry soil, the soil changes from solid to semi-solid to plastic to liquid.
Plastic limit Moisture content in the soil at the threshold between semi-solid and plastic.Determined by rolling a thread of soil on a glass plate until the 1/8-inch diameter thread begins to crumble ;Explained in ASTM procedure D-4318
Liquid limit Moisture content in the soil at the threshold between plastic and liquid ;Determined by forming a groove in a dish of soil and impacting the dish until the groove closes ;Done following the ASTM procedure D-4318
Large liquid limit indicates high compressibility and high shrink swell tendencies
Plasticity index (P) Range of moisture content in which the soil remains plastic (Higher the PI rating, the greater the shrink-swell potential); Determined by subtracting the plastic limit from the liquid limit
Shrinkage limit Water content, expressed as a percentage of the weight of the oven-dried soil, at which further loss in moisture will not cause a decrease in its volume
AASHTO classification system American Association of State Highway Officials classification system identifies soils based on there suitability for highway subgrade use ;Uses a variety of index parameters to classify soil
Soil Classification Group A Has a high infiltration rate (low runoff potential) when thoroughly wet ;Consists mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or gravelly sands ;Has a high rate of water transmission.
Soil Classification Group B Has a moderate infiltration rate when thoroughly wet ;Consists chiefly of moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse texture ;Has a moderate rate of water transmission
Soil Classification Group C Has a slow infiltration rate when thoroughly wet:Consists chiefly of soils having a layer that impedes the downward movement of water or soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture ;Has a slow rate of water transmission.
Soil Classification Group D Very slow infiltration rate (high runoff potential) when saturated. ;Clays that have a high shrink-swell potential;Soils that have a permanent high water table;
Soil Classification Group D Very slow infiltration rate ;Soils that have a clay layer at or near the surface;Soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.;Has a very slow rate of water transmission.
G Gravel
S Sand
M Silt
C Clay
O Organic
PT Peat
W Well graded
P Poorly graded
L Low liquid limit compressibility; lean (clay);Low liquid limit; (silts); plasticity
H High liquid limit, compressibility; fat (clays)
Soils Soil characteristics are determined from test results, records, field experience and state and local specialists.
Bedrock General term for solid rock that lies beneath soil, loose sediments, or other unconsolidated material; Best foundation for a building.
Boulder Rock that can only be lifted with two hands or equipment
Cobble Rock that you can pick up with one hand
Loam Mixture of two or more soil ingredients
Soil Any particulate; Sediments or other accumulations of solid particles produced by the physical and chemical disintegration of rocks; Usually found on top of the parent rock formation; Classified by the grain size distribution of the particles.
Coarse grained soils Grains large enough to be seen
Gravel Can be picked up with thumb and forefinger
Sand Particles large enough to be seen but too small to be picked up individually; Coarse soil with little or no fine particles (5 mm to 0.010 mm)
Fine grained soils Grains too small to be seen; Cohesive in nature; Tends to compress
Silt Finer than sands, but coarser than clays; Slightly finer material is classified as (0.010 mm to 0.005 mm)
Clay Consist of microscopic flake
Cohesive Soils Able to maintain measurable shear force in the absence of confining forces
Frictional Or Cohesionless Soils Shear capacity is directly proportional to the confining force
Peat And Other Organic Soils Unsuitable
High Plasticity Clays With actual soil samples to verify that construction work may proceed safely
Created by: annalder