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Aerosol Therapy Ex 1

What is body humidity? Absolute humidity in a volume of gas saturated at body temperature (37 C); equivalent to 44 mg/L of water in air
What is absolute humidity? Actual content of water vapor in as gas sample; expressed in mg/L
What is relative humidity? Ratio of actual water vapor present in a gas to the capacity of the gas to hold vapor at a given temperature
What is condensation? Change of state from a gas to liquid
What is humidity deficit? Amount of water the respiratory tract actually contributes to reach 100% RH
What is Brownian Movement? Random movement of molecules
What is a humidifier? Device that transform liquid into vapor, gaseous water, or molecular water
What is capillary action? A phenomenon in which liquid in a small tube moves upward, against gravity
What is evaporation? Change in state of a substance from liquid to gaseous state occurring below its boiling point
What is BTPS? Body temperature, ambient pressure, saturated
What is the body temperature for BTPS? 37 C
What is the ambient pressure for BTPS? 760 mmHg at sea level
What is the saturation for BTPS? 100% RH at 44 mg/L
What is the water vapor pressure for BTPS? 47 mmHg
What is the primary goal of humidity/ bland aerosol therapy? To maintain normal physiological conditions in the lower airways
What are the indications for humidity/ bland aerosol therapy? Supply increased levels of humidity to dry (anhydrous) medical gases, bypassed upper airway (ETT tube/ trach), upper airway edema, bronchial hygiene, sputum induction
What is the Isothermic Saturation Boundary (ISB)? The point where inspired gas reaches BTPS
Where is the ISB normally located? 5 cm below the carina
What factors can cause the ISB to shift? Breathing through the mouth instead of the nose, cold dry air, upper airway bypassed, higher minute ventilation
How are temperature and humidity affected above the ISB? Temperature and humidity decrease during inspiration and increase during expiration
How are temperature and humidity affected below the ISB? Temperature and humidity remain constant
What are the hazards of inhaling dry gases? Retained secretions, mucus plugging, and airway irritation
How does increased temperature affect the performance of a humidifier? Increased capacity for water vapor
How does increased surface area affect the performance of a humidifier? Increased evaporation
How does increased contact time affect the performance of a humidifier? Increased evaporation
How does increased flow affect the performance of a humidifier? Decreased time for evaporation to occur
What are the three primary types of humidifiers? Bubble, Passover, and HME
How does a passover humidifier work? Directs gas over the surface of a volume of water
How does a bubble humidifier work? Gas flows down into a reservoir of water through a hollow tube with a diffusing element at the bottom, diffuser breaks down gas flow into tiny bubbles, as the bubbles float to the surface, they pick up humidification by way of evaporation
How does an HME humidifier work? Most often a passive humidifier that has been described as an “artificial nose”, captures exhaled heat and moisture, which is then applied to the subsequent inhalation, three types: simple, hygroscopic, and hydroscopic
What are the contraindications for humidity/bland aerosol therapy? Bronchoconstriction, history of airway hyperresponsiveness
What are the hazards associated with humidity therapy? Wheezing or bronchospasm, swelling of inspissated secretions, infection, overhydration, airway burns, caregiver exposure, electric shock
What are the indications for delivery cool humidified gas? Upper airway edema: croup, epiglottitis, post extubation stridor
What is the simplest form of a room humidifier? Passover; simple reservoir - open pan of water
What are the five O2 delivery devices? Nasal cannula, simple mask, NRB, partial rebreather, venti mask
What is the LPM on a nasal cannula? 1/4 - 6 LPM
What is the FiO2 capacity for a nasal cannula? 24-44%
What is the LPM for a simple mask? 5-10 LPM
What is the FiO2 capacity for a simple mask? 35-55%
What is the LPM for a partial rebreather? 10-15 LPM
What is the FiO2 capacity for a partial rebreather? 60-80%
What is the LPM on a NRB? 10-15 LPM
What is the FiO2 capacity on an NRB? 80-100%
What is the LPM on an Air Entrainment Mask (Venti Mask)? Variable
What is the FiO2 capacity for an Air Entrainment Mask (Venti Mask)? 24-50%
How do you calculate relative humidity? Content/Capacity x 100
How do you calculate the humidity deficit? Content (body) - Content (ambient)
What is the liter flow when adding humidity to a nasal cannula? > 4 LPM
What humidifier is referred to as an artificial nose? HME
How long can an HME be used for? 96 hours
Created by: ashconrad417