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Ch. 3 Biomechanics

Kinesiology The study of human movement
Biomechanics The study of how forces affect a living body
External force Resistance of the body's weight as gravity pulls it down.
Ground reaction force An equal and opposite external force that is exerted back onto the body by the ground
Qualitative analysis Applying principles of proper technique and combining them with observations in order to make an educated evaluation.
Quantitative analysis Taking physical measurements and making mathematical computations to reach a conclusion.
Anatomic position Standard posture wherein the body stands upright with the arms beside the trunk, palms face forward, head faces forward.
Anterior Toward or on the front side of the body
Posterior Toward or on the back side of the body
Superior Above a landmark or closest to the head
Inferior Toward or closest to the bottom of the body
Proximal Closest to center of body or landmark
Distal Farthest from center of body or landmark
Medial Toward or closest to midline
Lateral Away or farthest from midline
Contralateral On opposite side of body
Ipsilateral Same side of body
Midline That which is contained within an imaginary line that splits the body into equal halves
Sagittal plane An imaginary plane that bisects the body into equal halves, producing a left half and a right half. -movements are forward and backward
Frontal Plane An imaginary plane that bisects the body into equal halves, producing a front half and a back half -movements are side to side
Transverse plane An imaginary line that bisects the body into equal halves, producing a top and bottom half -movements are rotational
Medial-lateral axis A straight line that cuts through the body from side-to-side. ::Sagittal plane
Anterior-Posterior axis A straight line that cuts through the body from front to back. ::frontal plane
Longitudinal axis An imaginary long, straight line that cuts through the top to bottom. ::transverse plane
In order for muscles to move a heavy object..? Muscles have to exert an internal force
Movements typically occur _______ to each plane. Parallel
Axis's are ________ to each associated plane. Perpendicular
Joint action Occurs when the surface of one joint moves in relation to another.
Range of motion The amount of movement produced by one or multiple joints
Sagittal plane motions Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension, Dorsiflexion, Plantar Flexion
Flexion -A bending at a joint where the relative angle between two adjoining segments decreases. -also occurs when a body segment is moving into a positive direction.
Extension A bending at a joint where the relative angle between two adjoining segments increases.
Frontal plane motions Adduction, Abduction, Lateral Flexion at the Spine, Eversion & Inversion of the Foot, Shoulder Elevation & Depression, Upward & Downward rotation of the Shoulder Blade.
Abduction A body segment is moving away from the midline of the body.
Adduction A body segment is moving toward the midline of the body
Eversion Bottom of foot rotates outward
Inversion Bottom of foot rotates inward
Transverse Plane Motions Internal/external rotation, Pronation/ Supination, Horizontal adduction/abduction, scapular retraction/protraction
Internal rotation Rotation of a limb or body segment toward the midline of the body
External rotation Rotation of a limb or body segment away from the midline of the body
Pronation A triplanar movement that is associated with force reduction
Supination A triplanar motion that is associated with force production.
Horizontal abduction Lateral movement beginning with flexion at either the shoulder or hip joint, away from the midline of the body.
Horizontal adduction Movement from a lateral position to an anterior position with the shoulder or hip joint flexed.
Functional Biomechanics Everyday activities involving multiple joints (multiplanar)
Muscle Action Product of communication and coordination from the nervous system to muscular system
3 major types of muscle activation: Concentric, Eccentric, Isometric
Concentric Activation The production of an active force when a muslce develops tension while shortening in length. Force generated is sufficient to overcome a load. 2 bones are pulled towards each other. Used to accelerate speed for a movement.
Active Force Muscle tension that is generated by its contractile elements.
Isometric Activation The production of an active force when a muscle develops tension while maintaining a constant length. No visible movement. Does not produce joint movement. Tension produced by muscle= to the force of an external load being applied
Eccentric Activation The production of an active force when a muscle develops tension while lengthening. To resist an external force/gravity/weight being held. Can produce more force eccentrically. "Braking mechanism". Can produce more soreness due to more tension.
Isolated Function 1) Muscles primary function. 2) A muscle action produced at a joint when a muscle is being concentrically activated to produce acceleration of a body segment. 3) Produces and intended movement.
Eccentric function Action of a muscle when it is generating an eccentric contraction.
Why does a muscle eccentrically decelerates the action of a primary mover? To reduce speed of movement to maintain control and avoid injury.
Integrated Function The coordination of muscles to produce, reduce, and stabilize forces in multiple planes for efficient and safe movement. Inclusive of all three muscle functions.
Kinetics Biomechanics term that involves the study of forces.
Force 1) a push or pull that can create, stop, or change movement. 2) Force =mass x acceleration
Mass The amount of matter in an object or physical body
Matter A substance that has mass and takes up space.
Acceleration The rate at which an object is increasing in speed.
Weight The amount of force that gravity has on the body.
Gravity A force that accelerates an object or mass downward toward the Earth's center.
Internal Force vs. External Force Internal - producing muscles to move limbs. External - mass, weight, gravity. Mass = BB, DB, KB. Gravity= body weight or suspension
Lever A relatively rigid rod or bar that rotates around a fulcrum.
Fulcrum Axisbaround which a joint rotates
First-class Lever Force applied on one side- (fulcrum) -resistance applied on the other. "Playground seesaw" Agonist provides the effort force, antagonist provides the resistive force as it decelerates the movement of the agonist.
Second-class lever (Fulcrum on either side) resistance & force on the same side with resistance closer to the fulcrum. -calf raise: ball of foot =fulcrum, weight of body =resistance, calf =force
Third-class lever (Fulcrum on either side) Force & resistance on the same side with force closer to the fulcrum. Most body segments act as 3rd class levers when concentric action is involved. DB Biceps curl: elbow= fulcrum, Biceps brachii= Force, DB= resistance
Torque The rotary or rotational effect that force has around an axis. "Wrench on a bolt"
How can the amount of torque be increased? A longer lever arm or applying more force.
Tempo The amount of time that muscle is actively producing tension during exercise movements.
Repetition Tempo The speed at which each repetition is performed. 1st #= eccentric component 2nd#= isometric phase (pause) 3rd#=concentric phase, releases stored energy
Line of Pull The direction in which a muscle is being pulled. Dependent on its attachments and arrangements of muscle fibers.
Muscles that cross the anterior aspect of a joint are called? Flexors
Muscles that cross posterior aspects are called? Extensors
Origin The relatively stationary attachment site when skeletal muscle attaches begin.
Insertion The relatively mobile attachment site.
Tendons Connective tissue that attach muscle to bone and provide an anchor for muscles to produce force.
Aponeurosis A white tendinitis sheet that attaches muscle to bone.
Skeletal muscles are typically named based on: Action, Attachment, Direction, Location, Structure, Size, Shape
Muscle Belly The mid-region between the origin and insertion.
Created by: Jstorm