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Med Gases Final Exam

What is standard working pressure? 50 psig
What are the four types of hypoxia? Anemic, Hypoxic, Histoxic, Circulatory
What causes Histoxic Hypoxia? Cyanide poisoning (tissues have an impaired ability to metabolize oxygen)
What causes Anemic Hypoxia? Anemia/ Hemorrhage (Oxygen carrying capacity of Hgb in inadequate)
What causes Hypoxic Hypoxia? Caused by low arterial oxygen tension (PaO2); hypoventilation, high altitude, V/Q mistmatch, diffusion impairment, pulmonary shunting
What causes Circulatory Hypoxia? Inadequate blood flow to the tissues, commonly cause by; slow or stagnant (pooling) peripheral blood flow, arterial-venous shunts
How do you calculate tank/cylinder duration time? Gauge pressure (psig) x factor / flow lpm = min left in tank
What is SaO2? Saturation of oxygen in arterial blood
What is SpO2? Measured by a pulse oximeter; can not distinguished O2 from CO
What is PaO2? Partial pressure of arterial oxygen; measured by ABG, MOST ACCURATE
What are the three Safety Index Connector Systems? American Standard Safety System (ASSS), Pin Index Safety System (PISS), Diameter Index Safety System (DISS)
What is the American Standard Safety System (ASSS) used for? Large cylinders and their attachments (larger than E); uses different thread pitches
What is the Pin Index Safety System (PISS) used for? Small cylinders and their attachments (E tank or smaller); no threaded connection; uses a pin system?
In the Pin Index Safety System, what pin holes are used for oxygen? 2 and 5
In the Pin Index Safety System, what pin holes are used for compressed air? 1 and 5
What is the Diameter Index Safety System used for? Low pressure gas connectors <200 psig; male/female type matching system; found in outlets of pressure reducing valves on cylinders, wall outlets, inlets to flowmeters, nebulizers, and ventilators
What is the tank factor for an H (or K) tank? 3.14
What is the tank factor for a G tank? 2.41
What is the tank factor for an E tank? 0.28
What is a zone valve? Located throughout a facility, used to shut off gas flow in the event of a fire or maintenance
What are the factors affecting the accuracy of a pulse oximeter? Sensor alignment, lighting, low perfusion, motion artifact, darkly pigmented patient, painted nails, significant levels of COHb or MEtHB
What are the five O2 delivery devices? Nasal cannula, simple mask, partial rebreather mask, non-rebreathing mask, venti mask
What is the liter flow of a nasal cannula? 1/4 - 6 LPM
What is the FiO2 capacity for a nasal cannula? 24-44%
What is the liter flow for a simple mask? 5-10 LPM
What is the FiO2 capacity for a simple mask? 35-55%
Why must a simple mask be kept at a minimum of 5 LPM? To prevent the patient from rebreathing CO2
What is the liter flow of a partial rebreathing mask? 10-15 LPM
What is the FiO2 capacity for a partial rebreathing mask? 60-80%
Why must a partial rebreathing and a non rebreathing mask be kept at a minimum of 10 LPM? Keep bag inflated
What is the liter flow for a non-rebreather mask? 10-15 LPM
What is the FiO2 capacity for a non-rebreather mask? 80-100%
What is the liter flow for a Venti Mask? Variable
What is the FiO2 capacity for a venti mask? 24-50%
What are the characteristics of Oxygen (O2)? Colorless, odorless, transparent, and tasteless; greatly accelerates combustion
How do you calculate FiO2 of a nasal cannula when given the flow? 4 x liter flow + 20 = FiO2
What color is an oxygen tank? Green
What color is a compressed air tank? Yellow
What color is a carbon dioxide tank? Gray
What color is a helium tank? Brown
What color is a nitrous oxide tank? Light blue
What color is a cyclopropane tank? Orange
What color is an ethylene oxide tank? Red
What color is a nitrogen tank? Black
What color is a heliox tank? Brown shoulder with a green body
What color is a carbogen tank? Gray shoulder with a green body
What are the signs of hypoxemia? Tachycardia (first sign), hypertension, dizziness, mental confusion
What are the hazards associated with helium? Does not support life, 100% can cause suffocation
What are the therapeutic uses for helium? Used for PFTs and anesthesia, can be mixed with O2 to treat upper airway obstruction and status asthmaticus
What are the mixtures for Heliox? 80/20 - 1.8, 70/30 - 1.6, 60/40 - 1.4
What is polycythemia? Increased RBCs
What causes polycythemia? Chronic hypoxemia
Where does internal respiration take place? In the tissues
Where does external respiration take place? In the lungs
What are the three types of gases? Anesthetic, Laboratory, and Therapeutic
What are Laboratory gases used for? Used for equipment calibration and diagnostic testing
What are therapeutic gases used for? Used to relieve the symptoms and improve oxygenation in patients with hypoxemia
What are anesthetic gases used for? Combined with oxygen to provide anesthesia during surgery
What is the maximum amount of time for 100% O2 on a non-rebreather mask? 24 hrs
What is the purpose of "cracking" the tank? Clear dust and debris from port
What is the proper use of a non-breather mask? Used in emergencies, short term therapy requiring high FiO2 (80-100%); Flow of 10-15 LPM to keep bag inflated
What is the most accurate way to assess a patient's oxygenation? ABG: PaO2
What are the effects of oxygen toxicity? Substernal pain, cough (sometimes uncontrollable), dyspnea, anxiety, numbness, lung damage
What is Cheyne-Stoke's respirations? Gradually increased and decrease of respirations with periods of apnea
What is Biot's respiratory? Increased and decreased of respirations with abrupt pauses
What is Kussmaul's respirations? Respirations associated commonly with Diabetic Ketoacidosis
What are the two types of oxygen concentrators? Molecular sieve concentrators and membrane concentrators
What is the FiO2 capability of a molecular sieve concentrator? >90% O2
What is the FiO2 capability of a membrane concentrator? Approx 40% O2
What are the types of oxygen analyzers? Physical/ paramagnetic, electric, and electrochemical (polarographic/ galvanic fuel cell) - most common
Where should the oxygen sensor be placed in relation to the patient? As closed to the patient as possible within the circuit
What causes left shift on the O2 dissociation curve? Increased pH, Decreased CO2, Decreased body temp, tighter binding
What causes right shift on the O2 dissociation curve? Decreased pH, Increased CO2, Increased body temp, looser binding
Is O2 considered a drug? Yes
What precautions should be taken when giving O2? Limit patient exposure to 100% O2 to 24 hrs whenever possible
What is the minimum flow rate to prevent CO2 build up in a non-rebreather mask? 10 LPM
What are the hazards of Oxygen Therapy? Oxygen toxicity, depression of ventilation, retinopathy of prematurity, absorption atelectasis, fire hazard
Created by: ashconrad417