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PSY291- Thinking

Powerpoint 2: Thinking and Intelligence

What does CONCEPT refer to? Refers to a mental representation that groups/categorizes shared features of related objects, events or other stimuli
What three ways do people perform categorization? 1. Family Resemblance Theory 2. Prototype Theory 3. Exemplar Theory
What is the Family Resemblance Theory? Features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member
What is the Prototype Theory? Categories are organized around prototype, the best or most typical member of a category
What is the Exemplar Theory? We make judgements by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the category
What is the Rational Choice Theory? The classical view that we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen, judging the value of the outcome, and then multiplying the two.
What complicates decision-making? 1. Frequency Format 2. Availability Bias 3. Conjunctive Fallacy 4. Representative Fallacy 5. Framing Effect
What is the Frequency Format Hypothesis? States that our minds evolved to notice how frequently things occur, rather than how likely they are to occur.
What is AVAILABILITY BIAS? States that items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently
When does the CONJUNCTIVE FALLACY occur? When people think that two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event
What is the REPRESENTATIVE HEURISTIC? A mental shortcut that involves making a probability judgement by comparing an object or event to a prototype
When does a FRAMING EFFECT occur? When people give different answers to the same problem depending on how the problem is framed
What is INTELLIGENCE? The ability to direct one's thinking, adapt to one's circumstances, and learn from one's experiences
What are the 2 intelligence quotients discussed in class? 1. RATIO IQ 2. DEVIATION IQ
What is RATIO IQ? A statistic obtained by dividing a person's mental age by the person's physical age and then multiplying the quotient by 100
What is DEVIATION IQ? A statistic obtained by dividing a person's test score by the average test score of people in the same age group and then multiplying the quotient by 100
What is the most widely used modern intelligence test? WECHSLER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE (W.A.I.S.)
What is the SPEARMAN Model of Intelligence? The two-factor theory of intelligence suggests that every task requires a combination of a general ability (referred to as 'g') and skills that are specific to the task (referred to as 's')
What are the THURSTONE Primary Mental Abilities? A few stable and independent mental abilities-like verbal, numerical, or perceptual abilities, rather than an overall quality over intelligence
What are the three tiers of Intelligence? (Due to the advent of computer analysis and modelling) 1. A general factor called intelligence (like Spearman's 'g') 2. A small set of middle-level factors (like Thurstone's abilities) 3. A large set of specific abilities unique to particular tasks (Like Spearman's 's')
What are Thurstone's Primary Mental Abilities? 1. Verbal Word Fluency 2. Verbal Comprehension 3. Numerical Ability 4. Spatial Visualization 5. Associative Memory 6. Perceptual Speed 7. Reasoning
What is VERBAL WORD FLUENCY? The ability to solve anagrams, find rhymes, etc.
What is VERBAL COMPREHENSION? The ability to understand words and sentences
What is numerical ability? Ability to make mental and other numerical computations
What is SPATIAL VISUALIZATION? The ability to visualize ca complex shape in various orientations
What is ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY? The ability to recall verbal material, learn pairs of unrelated words, etc.
What is PERCEPTUAL SPEED? The ability to detect visual details quickly
What is REASONING The ability to induce a general rule from a few instances
What are the 2 main types of intelligence? Fluid Intelligence and Crystallized Intelligence
What are the 4 other types of Intelligence? 1. Analytic Intelligence 2. Practical Intelligence 3. Creative Intelligence 4. Emotional Intelligence
What is FLUID INTELLIGENCE? The ability to see abstract reasoning and draw logical inferences
What is CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE? The ability to retain and use knowledge that was acquired through experience
What is ANALYTIC INTELLIGENCE? The ability to identify problems and define problems, and to find strategies for solving them
What is PRACTICAL INTELLIGENCE? Practical intelligence is the ability to apply and implement these solutions in everyday life
What is CREATIVE INTELLIGENCE? The ability to generate solutions that other people do not
What is EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE? The ability to reason about emotions and to use emotions to enhance reasoning
What does a SHARED ENVIRONMENT refer to? Those environmental factors that are experienced by all relevant members of a household
What does a NON-SHARED ENVIRONMENT refer to? Those environmental factors that are not shared by all relevant members of a household
What three factors IMPACT intelligence? 1. Intelligence tends to increase between adolescnece and middle age and declines in old age 2. Higher socioeconomic status correlates with higher intelligence 3. More formal education correlates with higher intelligence, though the impact is not huge.
Education may impact ________________ more than _________________ Test-taking ability more than intelligence.
Created by: sunshineshel