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motor lrn/neuroplast

QuestionAnswer
The brain's way of encoding experience and learning new behaviors; the damaged brain relearns lost behavior in response to rehab; alteration in neuron structure and fx in response to internal/external pressures Neuroplasticity
Name the types of changes that occur at the cellular/synaptic level with neuroplasticity Habituation, long-term potentiation/long term depression, axonal sprouting, synapse sensitivity, unmasking silent synapses (back up plans to keep the brain functioning)
What is a decreased response to a repeated innocuous stimuli? Short term and reversible changes resulting from decreased synaptic effectiveness. habituation (i.e. wearing a watch)
What do you call the strengthening of the connection between neurons established over a prolonged period of time? "Neurons that fire together wire together" Long term potentiation
What do you call a reduction in synaptic strength established over a period of time? Long term Depression (compensatory techniques)
Name the 3 ways that synapse sensitivity can be altered. synaptic effectiveness, denervation hypersensitivity, synaptic hypereffectiveness
What do you call the baseline synapse strength that returns upon resolution of edema or inflammation? synaptic effectiveness
What do you call the increase in receptors on post-synaptic neurons due to destruction of pre-synaptic neurons? denervation hypersensitivity
What do you call the increased neutrotransmitter release in available pre-synaptic axon terminals after damage resulting in increased stimulation of post-synaptic receptors? synaptic hypereffectiveness
Describe unmasking of silent synapses. Previously unused synapses become active (disinhibited) after damage to other pathways.
What do you call regrowth of damaged axons in the peripheral nervous system? What are the two ways? Axonal sprouting: 1. collateral 2. Regenerative
What is it called when intact pre-synaptic neurons re-innervate post-synaptic neurons after death of their original pre-synaptic neurons? collateral axonal sprouting
What do you call it when injured pre-synaptic neurons sprout to connect with new post-synaptic neurons? Regenerative axonal sprouting (1mm/day-peripheral ns); not possible in the CNS (permanent damage)
What are the short and long term effects of neuroplasticity? Short: improved efficiency and increased strength of synapse connections Long: changes in organization and increased number of connections/synapses
Type of neuroplasticity where a person may rely on less affected limb after unilateral cerebral damage is associated with neuronal growth and restructuring in the contralateral hemisphere. self-taught compensatory strategies
Reallocation of cortical territory rather than total loss of cortical function occurs after damage resulting in degradation of function Use it or lose it
Forced use corresponds with increased cortical representation of that area and improved functional use. (must be challenging to make changes including motor learning/skill acquisition for plasticity of the motor cortex NOT repetition alone) Use it and improve it
Training a specific skill does not necessarily generalize to the performance of other skills; learning new skills will increase representation at a trained joint not adjacent untrained joints specificity matters
This principle of neuroplasticity increases synaptic strength, number of synapses, and cortical map reorganization; it allows the skill to substantiate within neural circuitry, making it more resistant to decay in the absence of training repetition matters
Physical training after stroke significantly and permanently improves functional recovery; forced overuse of affected limb during the 1st 7 days s/p CVA expanded neural injury and worsened functional outcomes via exaggeration of excitotoxicity intensity matters
Early intervention promotes better functional outcomes through neuroplasticity and limiting self taught compensatory behaviors time matters
Something that a stands out to a patient as valuable or important makes more of an impact and elicit better outcomes/results; salience matters
Can produce variations in behavior including activity choice, approach/avoidance to activity, effort or intensity, longevity of participation, and performance motivation (under the heading salience matters)
Age matters: what is the response to CNS injury there is a reduced neurogenic response and infarcts are greater in size; brain changes are less profound and or slower to occur than those in younger brains
What do you call the ability of plasticity within one set of neural circuits to promote concurrent or subsequent plasticity? transference
What do you call the ability of plasticity within a given neural circuitry to impede the induction of new or expression of existing plasticity within that same circuitry? Interference
What do you call complex internal processes that allow an individual to acquire and permanently retain the ability to complete a skilled movement or task? motor learning
This is described as an observable behavior, involves a person's ability to complete a skill but does not ensure permanent ability to complete skill in all situations, often influenced by fatigue, motivation, confidence, environment, etc. performance
With this, the learner is provided with solutions to problems, and memorizes movement patterns with repetition; the practice of a skill or movement Training
What do you call it if an individual is able to achieve a skill that is completed as it was premorbidly following an injury? recovery of function
What do you call alternative behaviors or strategies used to complete a skill? compensation
Name the 3 types of motor tasks Discrete, serial, continuous
A movement with an obvious beginning and end discrete
A series of discrete tasks combined in a particular sequence serial
Repetitive movements with no distinct beginning and ending continuous
What do you call the type of environment where objects and surfaces surrounding the learner do not change; allows the learner to have full attention on completing the task and is self paced; predictable; no inter-trial variability Closed environment
The type of environment where objects or other people are in motion and the surface is unstable; learner must match action and pace of task to changing environment, unpredictable, inter-trial variability Open environment
Other progressions to motor learning besides open and closed environments. Body stable to body transport, no manipulation of objects to manipulation of objects;
Two types of long term memory non-declarative (implicit): does not require conscious awareness or attention, formed by frequent repetition, reflexive and automatic declarative (explicit): can be consciously recalled and requires awareness and attention; involves association of info
Fitts and Posner 3 stage model of motor skill acquisition cognitive associative autonomous
System 3 stage model of motor acquisition novice advanced expert
What stage? high variability in performance, minimal adaptability, requires cognition/attention, many errors, time of most improvement; requires massed/blocked practice and frequent constructive feedback with explanation/demo; closed environment cognitive/novice
What stage? makes subtle adjustments, movement is more consistent, performance will improve more gradually, addition of degree of freedom, able to self correct; fading feedback, random practice incorporated, open environment introduced associative/advanced
Which stage? Able to perform in all environments, requires less attn to detail, efficient; open environment, random practice, feedback is summative or bandwidth autonomous/expert
List pre-participation requirements be alert, have adequate attn, possess motivation, demonstrate capacity for memory
thought to reinforce cognitive component of motor learning and shown to enhance motor skill acquisition when paired with physical practice; activates the supplementary motor area mental practice
actively performing a task physical practice
when a task is broken down into components for the learner to practice individually before combining sequence; progressive: when components are combined additively: serial tasks part practice
Task is performed in its entirety; continuous tasks, discrete tasks whole practice
When rest periods are >practice, may be necessary based on condition of learner; continuous tasks distributed practice
when practice > rest; causes fatigue, discrete tasks, task novelty massed practice
What improves generalization of skills? Variability: Low variability improves performance High variability results in poor performance initially but then improves performance with task transfer and retention
Same task or series of tasks being performed repeatedly, predictable Blocked practice; (used in which stage of learning? cognitive/novice)
variations of same task completed, unpredictable, not good for those with cognitive impairments Random practice;(introduced in which stage of learning? associative or advanced)
What do you call all sensory information used during or after performing a motor skill to influence further motor learning? Feedback
Usually proprioceptive, kinesthetic, tactile, visual or auditory cues; received directly by performing a task, occurs during or directly after, requires use of many areas of the brain (cerebellum, basal ganglia, SMA, PMA) intrinsic feedback
provided in addition to internal feedback, therapist cueing controls type, timing and frequency, mechanical source, processing occurs in medial and temporal lobe areas extrinsic feedback
information about details of movement, quality, pattern, efficiency, cues to encourage the learner to "feel" the tasks and make adjustments accordingly knowledge of performance
info with regard to the amount of the goal achieved, focus on outcomes, research demonstrates improved retention with this form of feedback knowledge of results
information given during the performance of the task: constant: continuous, predictable manner variable: random intervals concurrent feedback
information given after completing or attempting the task immediate: directly after completion delayed: provided after short interval to allow learner to reflect summary: info on avg performance after several trials terminal feedback
higher amount of feedback given during cognitive/novice phase, promotes improved performance in early phases of learning; excessive feedback can lead to dependency on extrinsic feedback and reduced ability to self correct constant feedback
feedback provided after varying number of trials for less predictability, greater opportunity for retention due to developed ability to self correct variable feedback
when you gradually decrease the amount of feedback to allow the learner to problem solve; improves ability to transfer learning to new conditions fading
feedback only given when performance does not meet set standards bandwidth
performing motor skill to set standard after a period of time retention test
ability to apply and perform motor skill in new environment transfer test
Created by: metz