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Neuroanatomy (NCS)

QuestionAnswer
What is in the frontal lobe and what does each area do? (3) Primary motor cortex: contralateral motor function; prefrontal cortex: personality, executive functions, behaviors, judgment; Broca's area: language output
What is in the temporal lobe? Primary auditory cortex, Wernicke's area: language comprehension; memory; identification of objects
What is in the parietal lobe? primary sensory cortex: contralateral side of the body; perception and integration, visual and auditory processing
Which cortices are in the occipital lobe? Primary visual cortex; visual association cortex
Which area of the brain controls voluntary movements? Primary motor cortex (Brodmann's area 4); frontal lobe
Which area of the brain controls trunk and girdle muscles, anticipatory postural adjustments, externally guided? Premotor cortex (frontal lobe) (brodmann's area 6 lateral)
Which area of the brain controls planning of movements, initiation of movement, bimanual and sequential movements, internally guided? supplementary motor area (brodmann's area 6 superomedial); frontal lobe
Which area of the brain controls motor planning of speech? Broca's area, Brodmann's area 44 and part of 45; frontal lobe; usually L hemisphere
Which area of the brain controls planning nonverbal communication (gestures, tone of voice, etc? area analagous to Broca's area; frontal lobe of opposite hemisphere to Broca's; Brodmann's 44 and part of 45
Which area of the brain discriminates shape, texture, or size of objects? Parietal lobe; postcentral gyrus, primary somatosensory cortex; Brodmann's area 3, 1, 2
Which area controls conscious processing of sounds? Temporal lobe, Primary auditory cortex, Brodmann's area 41
Which area of the brain distinguishes light, dark, shape, size, location and movement of objects? occipital lobe, primary visual cortex, Brodmann's area 17
Which area of the brain processes info regarding head position and head movements? Parietal lobe, Primary vestibular cortex, Brodmann's area 40-anterior
Which area of the brain controls stereognosis and memory of tactile and spatial environment? parietal lobe, somatosensory association area, Brodmann's area 5 and 7
Which area of the brain processes analysis of colors and motion, visual fixation? occipital lobe and temporal lobe, visual association area, Brodmann's 18-21
Which area of the brain controls classification of sounds (language, music, noise)? temporal lobe, auditory association area, Brodmann's 22, 42
What do you call the nerve fibers connecting the L and R cerebral hemispheres? corpus callosum
What do you call the cavities in the brain containing CSF? How many are there ventricles (4) (2-lateral, 3rd, 4th)
CSF is produced by what? and which space does it fill? The choroid plexus; the subarachnoid space
How does CSF flow from the ventricles to the blood stream? lateral ventricles>intraventricular foramen>3rd ventricle>cerebral aqueduct>4th ventricle>subarachnoid space>dural venous sinuses>blood stream
Name the components of the limbic system (5) Amygdala Hippocampus hypothalamus anterior and medial nuclei of the thalamus limbic cortex (cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus)
Which area of the brain control emotions and also instincts, initiation, motivation, and aggression? Amygdala
Which part of the brain controls memory? hippocampus
Name the parts of the diencephalon. Thalamus epithalamus hypothalamus subthalamus
What do you call the collection of nuclei located above the brainstem that functions to relay sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex, also regulates consciousness, arousal, and attention and assists in integration of visceral and somatic functio Thalamus
The thalamus relays all sensory signals to the cerebral cortex except_________? olfactory
What is located below the thalamus that functions to maintain homeostasis, regulate circadian rhythm, regulates emotional expressions (pleasure, fear, anger) and involved in the autonomic nervous system,s trongly connected to the endocrine system and the hypothalamus
What is located above the thalamus, has a major component the pineal gland, and functions to secrete hormones that influence the pituitary gland and regulate circadian rhythm? epithalamus
What is part of the basal ganglia that is located below the thalamus and is involved in control of movement? subthalamus
What do you call the axons connecting the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures; fiber tracts separate the thalamus and basal ganglia internal capsule
Name the components of the basal ganglia (5) caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra
The globus pallidus and putamen are called the? lentiform nucleus
The caudate and the putamen are called the? striatum
What does the basal ganglia control? regulates movement via control of sequencing, muscle tone, muscle force; communicates with motor planning areas of the cerebral cortex via the thalamus;
Name the lobes of the cerebellum (3) anterior, posterior, flocculonodular
Name the deep cerebellar nuclei (4) fastigial, globose, emboliform, dentate
What are the 3 functional regions of the cerebellum? vestibulocerebellum (flocculonodular lobe) spinocerebellum (vermis and paravermal hemispheres) cerebrocerebellum (lateral hemispheres)
Where does each cerebellar peduncle attach? and what type of fibers does it contain? Sup. cerebellar peduncle: midbrain: efferent Mid. cerebellar peduncle: pons: afferent from the cerebral cortex Inf. cerebellar peduncle: medulla: affarent from the brainstem/spinal cord & efferent to the vestibular and reticular nuclei in the brainstem
Does the cerebellum have ipsilateral or bilateral control? mostly ipsilateral; vestibulocerebellum includes some bilateral control
Which area of the brain's primary function is to compare actual movement to intended movement and make adjustments? postural adjustment (anticipatory and reactive); and coordination of movement? cerebellum
which fibers of the cerebellum are for input (2) and output (1)? Input: mossy fibers (information) and climbing fibers (timing); purkinje cells (output)
Which area of the cerebellum regulates equilibrium? and what are the inputs/outputs? Which nucleus? vestibulocerebellum
What are the inputs/outputs of the vestibulocerebellum? inputs: vestibular nuclei and superior colliculus (eye and head position/movement) outputs: medial vestibular nucleus (VOR, eye-head coordination) and lateral vestibular nucleus, reticulospinal system, primary motor cortex (postural reactions)
Which deep cerebellar nucleus is involved with the vestibulocerebellum? fastigial
Which area of the cerebellum regulate gross limb movments? spinocerebellum
What are the inputs/outputs of the spinocerebellum? inputs: spinocerebellar tracts outputs: vestibulospinal and reticulospinal tracts, motor cortex and red nucleus
Which nuclei are involved with the spinocerebellum? emboliform and globose
Which area of the cerebellum reulates istal limb voluntary movements, motor planning, timing, and rhythm? cerebrocerebellum
What are the inputs and outputs of the cerebrocerebellum? inputs: cerebral cortex via pontine nuclei; outputs: motor and premotor cortices via the thalamus, red nucleus to activate the rubrospinal tract
which deep cerebellar nucleus is involved with the cerebrocerebellum? dentate
What are the 3 components of the brainstem? midbrain, pons, and medulla
The brainstem is the origin of all descending pathways except______? the corticospinal tract
Which cranial nerve nuclei are located on the brainstem? CN 3-12
What do you call the parts of the brain that regulate cardiovascular, respiratory, and visceral activity as well as arousal and awareness through the ascending reticular activating system? Brainstem
What structures are in the midbrain and which cranial nerves are located there? cerebral peduncles (descending tracts from the cerebral cortex), substantia nigra (part of the basal ganglia) red nucleus, superior colliculus (reflexive eye-head movements, inferior colliculus (relays auditory info), CN 3, 4,5
Which cranial nerves attach to the pons? 5,6,7
Which cranial nerves attach to the medulla, which tracts, and what decussates here? decussation of the corticospinal tract and dorsal column-medial lemniscus tract; cranial nerves 7-12
The spinal cord extends from what to what? medulla to L1/L2 vertebral level
What do you call the termination of the spinal cord and what level does it terminate at? conus medullaris: L2
What does the dorsal column medial lemniscus tract sense? discriminative touch, conscious proprioception
What does the spinothalamic tract sense? pain and temperature
Describe the first, second, and third order neurons for the dorsal column medial lemniscus tract. ascends peripheral receptor to medulla (1) via the dorsal spinal cord, medulla to the thalamus (synapses in the nucleus gracilis or cuneatus and decussates here), travels from the thalamus to the primary somatosensory cortex via the internal capsule
How does the spinothalamic tract travel up? peripheral receptor to spinal cord, synapses here, then to the thalamus (decussating in the anterior white commisure) then ascends contralaterally to the cerebral cortex, and travels up through the internal capsule to the primary somatosensory cortex
Which pathways relay slow pain? divergent
What does the spinomesencephalic tract do? turns eyes toward source of pain
What does the spinoreticular tract do? relays arousal, withdrawal, and autonomic responses to pain
What does the spinolimbic tract do? controls affective responses to pain
Name the descending motor tracts (8) corticospinal, rubrospinal, reticulospinal, lateral vestibulospinal tracts, tectospinal and medial vestibulospinal; ceruleospinal, raphespinal
Which 2 descending tracts control head and neck control? tectospinal and medial vestibulospinal
Where does the lateral corticospinal tract decussate? and what is its function lower medulla; fractionated movement: ability to activate individual muscles independently of other muscles (contralateral)
What does the medial corticospinal tract do? controls signals to neck, shoulder, trunk and prepares the postural system for intended movements; mainly ipsilateral
What does the reticulospinal tract control? postural muscles and limb extensors; ipsilateral
What does the lateral vestibulospinal tract do? facilitates extensors and inhibits flexors for balance reactions; ipsilateral
What area does the medial vestibulospinal tract control? neck and upper back musculature; bilateral
Where does the tectospinal tract decussate?and what is its function? midbrain; turns head towards visual and auditory stimuli; contralateral
What do the ceruleospinal and raphespinal tracts do? enhance activity of interneurons and motor neurons
What is cranial nerve 1 and how do you assess it? olfactory; identify distinctive smells: coffee or lemon; projects directly to the temporal lobe, bypassing the thalamus
What is cranial nerve 2 and how do you assess it? optic nerve; confrontation or the snellen chart; R eye L cortex and vice versa
What is cranial nerve 3 and how do you assess it? occulomotor; smooth pursuits innervates the superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique
What is cranial nerve 4 and how do you assess it? trochlear: smooth pursuits (innervates the superior oblique muscle-inferior and medial eye movement); only CN to emerge from the dorsal brainstem
What is cranial nerve 5 and how do you assess it? trigeminal: light touch to face, palpate temporalis and masseter as patient clenches teeth; sensory (face and TMJ) and motor function (muscles of mastication); jaw jerk reflex
What are the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve (CN5)? opthalmic-sensory maxillary-sensory mandibular-sensory and motor
What is the significance of the jaw jerk reflex? if it is hyperreflexive, it indicates pathology above the foramen magnum; if the test is negative, leads to diagnosis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy not ALS or MS
What is cranial nerve 6 and what does it innervate? abducens; lateral rectus; smooth pursuits; if impaired, eye will deviate towards the nose
What is cranial nerve 7? what does it do? how do we assess it? facial nerve; motor to muscles of facial expression and sensory: taste of anterior 2/3 of tongue and salivation; observe for facial symmetry: eyebrow elevation, puff cheeks, close eyes, smile
What are the 5 branches of the facial nerve? temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical
What is cranial nerve 8? what does it do? how do you assess it? vestibulocochlear, hearing and vestibular function, finger rub beside ears, vestibular screen
What is cranial nerve 9 and how do you assess it? glossopharyngeal; taste of posterior 1/3 of the tongue, salivation, swallowing (sensation from soft palate and pharynx); gag reflex sensory portion
What is cranial nerve 10 and how do you assess it? vagus; speech, swallowing, thoracic and abdominal viscera, heart; gag reflex ("say ahh", observe palate elevation, uvula deviation away from the affected side); motor portion of the gag reflex
What is cranial nerve 11 and how do you assess it? spinal accessory; innervates the SCM and upper trapezius; turn head and shrug shoulders
What is cranial nerve 12 and how do you assess it? hypoglossal; tongue movement; tongue deviates towards affected side
What are the 3 types of connective tissue in peripheral nerves and what do they each cover? epineurium: entire nerve trunk perineurium: bundles of axons endoneurium: individual axons
What are the 2 types of lower motor neurons? Gamma (medium)-myelinated) Alpha (large-myelinated)
Which type of motor unit contains larger diameter, faster, alpha motor neurons? fast twitch
Which type of motor unit contains smaller diameter, slower alpha motor neurons? slow twitch
What is Henneman's size principle? Slower twitch motor units are recruited first, followed by fast twitch (e-stim is the opposite)
Name the myotomes and muscles tested because they are innervated by a single spinal nerve. C5 elbow flex C6 wrist ext; C7 elbow ext; C8 finger abd; T1 deep finger abd, L2 hip flex, L3 knee ext, L4 ankle DF, L5 great toe ext; S1 ankle PF
What is cranial nerve 9 and how do you assess it? glossopharyngeal; taste of posterior 1/3 of the tongue, salivation, swallowing (sensation from soft palate and pharynx); gag reflex sensory portion
What is cranial nerve 10 and how do you assess it? vagus; speech, swallowing, thoracic and abdominal viscera, heart; gag reflex ("say ahh", observe palate elevation, uvula deviation away from the affected side); motor portion of the gag reflex
What is cranial nerve 11 and how do you assess it? spinal accessory; innervates the SCM and upper trapezius; turn head and shrug shoulders
What is cranial nerve 12 and how do you assess it? hypoglossal; tongue movement; tongue deviates towards affected side
What are the 3 types of connective tissue in peripheral nerves and what do they each cover? epineurium: entire nerve trunk perineurium: bundles of axons endoneurium: individual axons
What are the 2 types of lower motor neurons? Gamma (medium)-myelinated) Alpha (large-myelinated)
Which type of motor unit contains larger diameter, faster, alpha motor neurons? fast twitch
Which type of motor unit contains smaller diameter, slower alpha motor neurons? slow twitch
What is Henneman's size principle? Slower twitch motor units are recruited first, followed by fast twitch (e-stim is the opposite)
Name the myotomes and muscles tested because they are innervated by a single spinal nerve. C5 elbow flex C6 wrist ext; C7 elbow ext; C8 finger abd; T1 deep finger abd, L2 hip flex, L3 knee ext, L4 ankle DF, L5 great toe ext; S1 ankle PF
What system is responsible for maintaining homeostasis, regulating the cardiovascular system, GI system, GU system, body temp, metabolism, pupillary adjustments, and reproduction autonomic nervous system
what cranial nerves are associated with the Autonomic nervous system? vagus X, VII facial, IX hypoglossal
Name the visceral receptors and what they sense changes in. mechanoreceptors-pressure chemoreceptors-chemical changes specifically the aortic body which detects O2 or CO2 in blood and the carotid body which detects that plus changes in pH thermoreceptors-temp changes nociceptors-pain
What is cranial nerve 9 and how do you assess it? glossopharyngeal; taste of posterior 1/3 of the tongue, salivation, swallowing (sensation from soft palate and pharynx); gag reflex sensory portion
What is cranial nerve 10 and how do you assess it? vagus; speech, swallowing, thoracic and abdominal viscera, heart; gag reflex ("say ahh", observe palate elevation, uvula deviation away from the affected side); motor portion of the gag reflex
What is cranial nerve 11 and how do you assess it? spinal accessory; innervates the SCM and upper trapezius; turn head and shrug shoulders
What is cranial nerve 12 and how do you assess it? hypoglossal; tongue movement; tongue deviates towards affected side
What are the 3 types of connective tissue in peripheral nerves and what do they each cover? epineurium: entire nerve trunk perineurium: bundles of axons endoneurium: individual axons
What are the 2 types of lower motor neurons? Gamma (medium)-myelinated) Alpha (large-myelinated)
Which type of motor unit contains larger diameter, faster, alpha motor neurons? fast twitch
Which type of motor unit contains smaller diameter, slower alpha motor neurons? slow twitch
What is Henneman's size principle? Slower twitch motor units are recruited first, followed by fast twitch (e-stim is the opposite)
Name the myotomes and muscles tested because they are innervated by a single spinal nerve. C5 elbow flex C6 wrist ext; C7 elbow ext; C8 finger abd; T1 deep finger abd, L2 hip flex, L3 knee ext, L4 ankle DF, L5 great toe ext; S1 ankle PF
What system is responsible for maintaining homeostasis, regulating the cardiovascular system, GI system, GU system, body temp, metabolism, pupillary adjustments, and reproduction autonomic nervous system
what cranial nerves are associated with the Autonomic nervous system? vagus X, VII facial, IX hypoglossal
Name the visceral receptors and what they sense changes in. mechanoreceptors-pressure chemoreceptors-chemical changes specifically the aortic body which detects O2 or CO2 in blood and the carotid body which detects that plus changes in pH thermoreceptors-temp changes nociceptors-pain
What is the sympathetic nervous system characterized by, where are the cell bodies located and where do they synapse? fight or flight; preganglionic-spinal levels T1-L2; @sympathetic chain ganglia
What is the parasympathetic nervous system characterized by? Where are the cell bodies located? Where do they synapse? rest and digest; brainstem and sacral spinal cord; and near target organs
What does the anterior cerebral artery supply? frontal lobe
What does the middle cerebral artery supply? frontal lobe, lateral surface of temporal and parietal lobes
What does the posterior cerebral artery supply? portion of temporal and occipital lobes and deep subcortical structures including the thalamus
What arteries supply the cerebellum? vertebral arteries: posterior inferior cerebellar artery and posterior spinal artery Basilar artery: superior cerebellar artery and anterior inferior cerebellar artery
what arteries supply the midbrain? basilar: paramedian aa; short circumferential aa, long circumferential aa
Created by: metz