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Diseases Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
How do obstructive diseases affect RV? Increased
How do obstructive diseases affect TLC? NL or Increased
How do obstructive diseases affect FEV1? Decreased
How do obstructive diseases affect FEV1%? Decreased
How do obstructive diseases affect PEFR? Decreased
What is another name for COPD? COLD (Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease)
What is COPD? A disease state characterized by the presence of incompletely reversible airflow obstruction
What two diseases make up COPD? Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis
What is Emphysema? Permanent enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles, accompanied by destruction of the alveolar walls, without obvious fibrosis
What are the two types of Emphysema? Panacinar (Panlobular) and Centriacinar (Centrilobular)
What causes Panacinar (Panlobular) Emphysema? AAT deficiency, genetic emphysema (most severe)
What causes Centriacinar (Centrilobular) Emphysema? Smoking
What are the clinical manifestations of Emphysema? Thin body build, barrel chest, diminished breath sounds, decreased heart sounds, prolonged expiration 1:4, dyspnea, reddish skin, and hyperresonant percussion note
What are the CXR findings for Emphysema? Hyperinflation, narrow mediastinum, normal or small vertical heart, low flat diaphragm, and presence of blebs or bullae
What is Chronic Bronchitis? Chronic, productive cough for 3 months, for 2 consecutive years
What are the causes of Chronic Bronchitis? Smoking (most common), pollution, long standing asthma, biomass or occupational exposure
What are the clinical manifestations of Chronic Bronchitis? Increased HR, RR, and BP, normal percussion, BS: wheezing, crackles, rhonchi, stocky and overweight build, hypoxia and hypercapnia, cough with copious amounts of purulent sputum, cyanosis, peripheral edema, JVD, cor pulmonale, DLCO
What are the CXR findings for Chronic Bronchitis? Congested lung fields, densities, increased opacity, enlarged horizontal heart, increased bronchial vascular markings
List the treatment modalities for COPD Smoking cessation, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, oxygen therapy, bronchopulmonary hygiene
What is pink puffer another term for? Emphysema
What is blue bloater another term for? Chronic Bronchitis
How much does hemoglobin saturation have to reduce before a patient is considered cyanotic? <5g/L saturation
What is it important not to give a CO2 retainer to much oxygen? They could stop breathing since their brains rely solely on oxygen levels for their hypoxic drive
What is the term for increased RBCs? Polycythemia
What is hemoptysis? Blood streaked sputum
What is the breathing pattern for a patient with Emphysema? Prolonged expiration, 1:4
What contributes to Cor Pulmonale? Polycythemia caused by hypoxemia
What are the physical signs of cor pulmonale? Distended neck veins, peripheral and pitting edema, and enlarged, tender liver
What ABG would you expect for a patient with mild to moderate obstructive disease? Acute Alveolar Hyperventilation with hypoxemia (uncompensated respiratory alkalosis)
What ABG would you expect for a patient with severe obstructive disease? Chronic Ventilatory Failure with hypoxemia (full compensated respiratory acidosis)
What is Asthma? Reversible bronchial airway smooth muscle constriction, airway inflammation, and increased airway responsiveness to an assortment of stimuli
What is the cause of extrinsic asthma? Allergens, environmental agents, house dust, dander, bugs, mold, fungi, family related
What is the cause of intrinsic asthma? Non-allergic, occurs after age 40, typically with no family history
What are the clinical manifestations of Asthma? Increased HR, RR, and BP, accessory muscle use, pursed lip breathing, retractions, increased AP diameter, cyanosis, cough with excessive white, thick, tenacious sputum, pulsus paradoxus
What are the chest assessment findings for Asthma? Wheezing and rhonchi, diminished BS, hyperresonant percussion note, decreased tactile and vocal fremitus, prolonged expiration 1:3
List the CXR findings for Asthma Increased AP diameter, translucent (dark) lung fields, and depressed diaphragms
List the treatment modalities for Asthma O2 therapy, bronchial hygiene therapy, aerosolized medication therapy, mechanical ventilation (status asthmaticus)
What is status asthmaticus? An acute exacerbation of asthma that remains unresponsive to initial treatment with bronchodilators
What test is used to assess the reversibility of bronchoconstriction in asthma patients? Spirometry
What are the major pathological changes in the lungs during an asthmatic episode? Bronchospasm, bronchial wall inflammation, excessive production of thick, white bronchial secretions, mucous plugging, hyperinflation
How is airway resistance affected during status asthmaticus? Increased airway resistance (Raw)
What type of ABG would you expect in a patient with status asthmaticus who is rapidly deteriorating? Acute Ventilatory Failure (acute respiratory acidosis)
What treatments/medications are used for status asthmaticus? O2 therapy, adequate humidification, IV steroids, mechanical ventilation, aminophylline IV
What is bronchiectasis? Characterized by chronic dilation and distortion of one of more bronchi as the result of extensive inflammation and destruction of the bronchial wall cartilage, blood vessels, elastic tissues and smooth muscle
What are the three forms of bronchiectasis? Cylindrical (Tubular), Varicose (Fusiform), Cystic (Saccular)
What is the most severe form of bronchiectasis? Cystic (Saccular)
What are the causes of acquired bronchiectasis? Recurrent pulmonary infections, bronchial obstruction, and inhalation/aspiration
What are the causes of congenital bronchiectasis? Cystic fibrosis (causes 50% of bronchiectasis), Kartagener's syndrome, and systemic disorders
List the clinical manifestations of Bronchiectasis Increased HR, RR, and BP, accessory muscle use, pursed lip breathing, increased AP diameter, cyanosis, digital clubbing, polycythemia, cor pulmonale, JVD, edema, foul smelling sputum that forms three layers
List the CXR findings for primarily obstructive Bronchiectasis Translucent lung fields, depressed diaphragms, long and narrow heart, enlarged heart, and may see areas of consolidation and/or atelectasis
List the CXR findings for primarily restrictive Bronchiectasis Atelectasis or consolidation, infiltrates (suggestive pneumonia), and increased opacity
List the treatment modalities for Bronchiectasis O2 therapy, bronchopulmonary hygiene, lung expansion, aerosolized medication therapy, mechanical ventilation, expectorants, antibiotics
What is Cystic Fibrosis? Genetic disorder caused by mutation of genes located in chromosome 7. Characterized by dysfunction of the endocrine gland
What is the cause of Cystic Fibrosis? Genetics
List the clinical manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis Increased HR, RR, and BP, accessory muscle use, pursed lip breathing, cyanosis, digital clubbing, polycythemia, cor pulmonale, JVD, pitting edema, enlarged, tender liver, cough, sputum, hemoptysis, poor body development, foul smelling stool in infants
List the CXR findings for Cystic Fibrosis Translucent lung fields, depressed diaphragms, right ventricular enlargement, atelectasis and fibrosis, densities, bronchiectasis, pneumothorax, occasionally abscess formation
List the treatment modalities for Cystic Fibrosis Special diet, O2 therapy, bronchopulmonary hygiene, humidification, lung expansion, aerosolized meds, mechanical ventilation, xanthines, expectorants, antibiotics, transplant
What is the most reliable test for Cystic Fibrosis? Sweat test (AKA swear chloride test)
What digestive organ is primarily involved in Cystic Fibrosis? Pancreas
Created by: ashconrad417