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Chapter 13 final

chapter 13 final- class 3

QuestionAnswer
How long is the average small bowel if removed and stretched out during an autopsy? 23 feet
in a person with good muscle tone, the length of the entire intestine is 15-18 feet
the average length of the large intestine is 5 feet
the 3 divisions of the small intestine in descending order, starting with the widest division 1. duodenum 2. jejunum 3. ileum
what division of the small intestine is the shortest? duodenum
in which two abdominal quadrants would the majority of the jejunum be found? LUQ & LLQ
which division of the small intestine has a feathery or coiled-spring appearance during a small bowel series? jejunum
what division of the small intestine is the longest? ileum
what two aspects of the large intestine are not considered part of the colon? cecum & rectum
the colon is divided into ______ sections and has _______ flexures 4 sections and 2 flexures
List the two functions of the ileocecal valve: 1. prevents contents of ileum from passing too quickly into the cecum 2. prevents reflux
what is another term for the appendix? vermiform appendix
jejunum makes up 40% of the small intestine
Duodenum shortest aspect of the small intestine
ileum aspect of small intestine that is the smallest in diameter but longest in length
cecum widest portion of the large intestine
appendix a blind pouch inferior to the ileocecal valve
acceding colon found between the cecum and transverse colon
descending colon distal part; also called the iliac colon
transverse colon longest aspect of the large intestine
sigmoid colon lies in pelvis but possesses a wide freedom of motion
what is the term for the three bands of muscle that pull the large intestine into punches? tachial coli
these pouches, or sacculations, seen along the large intestine wall are called haustra
what is another term for the mucosal folds found within the jejunum? plicae circulares
which portion of the small intestine is located primarily to the left of the midline? jejunum
which portion of the small intestine is located primarily in the RLQ? ileum
what aspect of the small intestine is most fixed in position? duodenojejunal jx
in which quadrant does the terminal ileum connect with the large intestine? RLQ
which muscular band marks the junction between the duodenum and jejunum? ligament of treitz
the widest portion of the large intestine is the cecum
which flexure of the large intestine usually extends more superiorly? left colic (splenic)
intraperitoneal cecum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, ileum, jejunum
retroperitoneal ascending colon, descending colon, upper rectum, c loop of duodenum
infraperitoneal lower rectum
list two conditions that may prevent the use of barium sulfate during a small bowel series possible perforated hollow viscus and large bowel obstruction
what types of patients should be given extra care when using a water soluble contrast medium? young and dehydrated
ileus obstruction of the small intestine
neoplasm new growth
meckel's diverticulum common birth defect found in the ileum
Malabsorption syndrome patient with lactose or sucrose sensitivities
Enteritis Inflammation of the intestine
celiac disease a form or spure
regional enteritis form of inflammatory disease of the GI tract
giardiasis common parasitic infection of the small intestine
adenocarcinoma apple core sign. a malignant tumor formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue.
meckel's diverticulum large diverticulum of the ileum
ileus circular staircase or herringbone sign
giardiasis dilation of the intestine with thickening of circular folds
regional enteritis cobblestone appearance
volvulus "Break sign". A volvulus is when a loop of intestine twists around itself and the mesentery that supports it, resulting in a bowel obstruction.
giardiasis is a condition acquired through: contaminated food, contaminated water, person-to-person contact
Meckel's diverticulum(abnormal sac or pouch formed at a weak point in the wall of the alimentary tract) is best diagnosed with which imaging modality? nuclear medicine
whipple's disease is a rare disorder of the: proximal small intestine
how much barium sulfate is generally given to an adult patient for a small-bowel-only series? 2 cups or 16 oz
when is a small bowel series deemed complete? when contrast passes the ileocecal valve
when is the first radiograph generally taken during a small bowel series? 15-30 minutes after ingesting contrast
t/f fluoroscopy is sometimes used during a small bowel series to visualize the ileocecal valve TRUE
the term enteroclysis describes what type of a small bowel study? double-contrast
what 2 types of contrast media are used for an enteroclysis procedure? (Enteroclysis is an imaging test, how a liquid called contrast material moves through the small intestine) high-density baso4 & air OR methylceltulose
which 2 pathologic conditions are best evaluated through an enteroclysis procedure? regional enteritis and malabsorption syndrome
t/f it takes approximately 12 hours for barium sulfate in a healthy adult, given orally, to reach the rectum FALSE-24 hours
the tip of the catheter is advanced to the ________ during an enteroclysis duodenojejunal flexure (suspensory ligament)
what is the purpose of introducing methylcellulose during an enteroclysis? dilates intentional lumen for better diagnosis
a procedure to alleviate postoperative distention of a small intestine obstruction is called: therapeutic intubation
what is the recommended patient prep for a small bowel series? NPO 8hrs before, no gum/smoking
which position is recommended for a small bowel radiograph? why? prone, to separate loops of bowel
polyp inward growth extending from the lumen of the intestinal wall
diverticulum outpouching of the mucosal wall, weak spot
intussusception telescoping of one part of the intestine into another
volvulus a twisting of a portion of the intestine on its own mesentery
ulcerative colitis severe form of colitis
colitis Inflammatory condition of the large intestine
which type of patient usually experiences intussusception? infants
a condition of numerous herniations of the mucosal wall of the large intestine is called Diverticulosis
pathologic condition that may produce a "tapered or corkscrew" radiographic sign during a barium enema? volvulus
the most common form of carcinoma found in the large intestine annular carcinoma
t/f intestinal polyps and diverticula are very similar in structure FALSE
t/f volvulus occurs more frequently in males than females TRUE
t/f the barium enema is a commonly recommended procedure for diagnosing possible acute appendicitis FALSE
t/f any stool retained in the large intestine may require postponement of a barium enema study TRUE
which 4 conditions would prevent the use of a laxative cathartic before a barium enema procedure? 1. gross bleeding 2. severe diarrhea 3. obstruction 4. Inflammatory lesions
t/f an example of an irritant cathartic is magnesium citrate FALSE- castor oil
list the 3 types of enema tips commonly used 1. plastic disposable 2. rectal retention 3. air-contrast retention
t/f synthetic latex enema tips or gloves do not cause problems for latex-sensitive patients TRUE
what water temperature is recommended for barium enema mixtures? room temp
to minimize spasm during a barium enema, ___________ can be added to the contrast media mixture lidocaine
what is the name of the patient position recommended for insertion of the rectal enema tip? sim's
the initial insertion of the rectal enema tip should be pointed toward the: Umbilicus
which procedure is most effective to demonstrate small polyps in the colon? double-contrast barium enema
which aspect of the large intestine must be demonstrated during evacuative proctography? rectal prolapse
which of the following procedures uses the thickest mixture of barium sulfate? a. single contrast b. double contrast c. evacuative proctogram d. enteroclysis c. evacuative proctogram
into which position is the patient placed for imaging during the evacuative proctogram? lateral
t/f a special tapered enema tip is inserted into the stoma before a colostomy barium enema TRUE
t/f the enema bag should not be more than 36 inches (92cm) above the table top before the beginning of the procedure FALSE- 24inches
t/f the tech should review the patients chart before a barium enema to determine whether a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy was performed recently TRUE
t/f both computed tomography and sonography may be performed to aid in diagnosing appendicitis TRUE
t/f because of the density and the amount of barium within the large intestine, computed radiography should not be used during a barium enema FALSE
which of the following is true about CT enteroclysis? 1. duodenum tube doesn't have to be inserted 2. 0.1% barium sulfate suspension is instilled before procedure 3. doesn't detect obstructions in small intestine 4. rarely performed today 2. 0.1% barium sulfate suspension is often instilled before procedure
another term for CT colonography (CTV) is virtual colonoscopy
t/f a cleansing bowel prep is not required during a CTC FALSE
why is oral contrast media sometimes given during a CTC(virtual colonoscopy)? to mark or "tag" fecal matter
what is the chief disadvantage of a CT colonography (CTC)? cannot remove polyps discovered during CTC
t/f single contrast barium enemas are performed commonly on patients with a clinical history of diverticulosis FALSE
which of the following projections is recommended to be taken during a small bowel series? 1. supine AP 2. left lateral decubitus 3. erect AP 4. prone PA 4. prone PA
t/f shielding is not recommended during studies of the lower GI tract? FALSE
due to faster transit time of barium from the stomach to the ileocecal valve in pediatric patients, how frequently should images be taken during a small bowel series to avoid missing critical anatomy and possible pathology? every 20 to 30 minutes
the ________ position is recommended alternative for the lateral rectum projection during a double-contrast BE procedure ventral decubitus
what kV is recommended for a small bowel series (single contrast study)? 100 to 125 kV
where is the CR centered for the 15-minute radiograph during a small bowel series? 2 inches (5cm) above iliac crest
what are the breathing instructions for a projection taken during a small bowel series? expiration
generally, a small bowel series is complete once the contrast media reaches the ___________ ileocecal valve
which projections taken during a barium enema best demonstrate the right colic flexure? RAO or LPO
how much body rotation is required for oblique barium enema projections? 35-45 degrees
which positions should be performed if the patient cannot lie prone on the table to visualize the left colic flexure? RPO
which projection during a double-contrast barium enema series best demonstrates the descending colon for possible polyps? right lateral decubitus
which aspect of the large intestine is best demonstrated with an AP axial projection? rectosigmoid region
what is the advantage of performing an AP axial oblique rather than an AP axial? less superimposition of the rectosigmoid segments
what is another term for describing the AP and PA axial projections? butterfly
what kV range is recommended for a post evacuation projection following a barium enema? 90-100 kV
what is the recommended kV range for oblique positions taken during a single-contrast barium enema study? 100-125kV
what is the recommended kV range for oblique projections taken during a double-contrast study? 90-100kV
what medication can be given during a barium enema to minimize colonic spasm during a barium enema? glucagon (if not diabetic)
Diverticulum an abnormal sac or pouch formed at a weak point in the wall of the alimentary tract.
How long is the average small bowel if removed and stretched out during an autopsy? 23 feet
in a person with good muscle tone, the length of the entire intestine is 15 to 18 feet
how long does it usually take to complete an adult small bowel series? 2 hours
t/f fluro is sometimes used during a small bowel series to visualize the ileocecal valve? true
which aspect of the GI tract is primarily responsible for digestion, absorption and reabsorption? a. small intestine b. stomach c. large intestine d. colon small intestine
which one of the following structures fills with air during a double-contrast barium enema with the patient supine? a. ascending colon b. transverse colon c. rectum d. sigmoid colon e. Descending colon b. transverse colon and d. sigmoid colon
which aspect of the GI tract is responsible for the synthesis and absorption of vitamins B and K and amino acids? a. small intestine b. colon c. large intestine d. stomach small intestine
what is the purpose of introducing methylcellulose during an entreroclysis? dilates the intestinal lumen for better diagnosis
inflammation of the vermiform appendix is called appendicitis
which one of the following clinical conditions Is best demonstrated during evacuative proctography? a. itussusception b. volvulus c. rectal prolapse d. divertivulosis c. rectal prolapse
t/f if a retention tip enema is used, it should be removed after fluro is completed and before overhead projections are taken to better visualize the rectal region? false
Created by: Hmaeesomy