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Chpt.15 T&D

Therapeutic Agents for the Nervous System: Terms and Definitions

TermDefinition
Alzheimer's disease (AD) A progressive form of dementia that affects memory, thinking, and behavior
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) A physiological brain disorder that affects the ability to engage in quiet, passive activities or to focus one's attention; attributable to an imbalance of neurotransmitters in the brain
Autonomic nervous system A branch of the nervous system that carries out “automatic” bodily functions; it is composed of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) A barrier that exists in the brain as a result of special permeability characteristics of the capillaries that supply brain cells; these capillaries prevent certain solutes or chemicals from being transferred from the blood to the brain
Bradykinesia Slowed movement
Brainstem A section of the brain consisting of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, which connect the forebrain and cerebrum to the spinal cord
Central nervous system (CNS) Consists of the brain and spinal cord; it acts to coordinate sensory and motor control of body functions
Cerebellum A structure located posterior to the pons and medulla oblongata; it is responsible for posture, balance, and voluntary muscle movement
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Clear watery fluid that is continually produced and absorbed that flows in the ventricles of the brain and around the surface of the brain and spinal cord
Epilepsy A brain disorder marked by repeated seizures over time
Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) Often result from taking antipsychotic medications and include parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremors
Hemorrhagic stroke A stroke caused by the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain
Homeostasis The tendency of the body to maintain stability, such as with body temperature
Insomnia Difficulty falling or staying asleep
Ischemic stroke A stroke caused by blockage of a blood vessel in the brain
Multiple sclerosis (MS) An autoimmune disorder that affects nerves in the CNS; it leads to impaired motor function
Myasthenia gravis A neuromuscular disorder leading to weakness of the skeletal muscles
Neuron The basic building block and cell of the nervous system
Parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) A division of the autonomic nervous system that functions during restful situations
Parkinson's disease (PD) A movement disorder with the classic symptoms of tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) The division of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord
Polyneuropathy A neurological disorder that occurs when many nerves throughout the body malfunction; it can be associated with painful neuropathy
Psychosis A mental illness characterized by loss of contact with reality; it may be a true mental illness, due to an underlying medical condition (e.g., dementia, drug withdrawal syndromes), or induced by substances
Schizophrenia A disorder characterized by inappropriate emotions and unrealistic thinking
Somatic nervous system The motor neurons of the peripheral nervous system that control voluntary actions of the skeletal muscles and provide sensory input (touch, hearing, sight)
Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) A division of the autonomic nervous system that functions during stressful situations; the “fight or flight” part of the autonomic nervous system
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) A type of dyskinesia attributed as a potential side effect of taking dopamine antagonists such as phenothiazines or other medications (e.g., metoclopramide); the symptoms may continue even after discontinuation of the offending drug
Created by: btdell