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Chapter 12- final

Chapter 12 final class 3

Average weight of the adult liver 3-4lbs
Which abdominal quadrant contains the gallbladder? RUQ
What is the name of the soft tissue structure that separates the right and left lobe of liver? falciform ligament
Which lobe of the liver is larger, right or left? right
List the other two lobes of the liver(in addition to right and left lobes): quadrate and caudate
T/F the liver performs more than 100 functions? TRUE
T/F the average adult liver produces 1 gallon or 300 to 400 m of bile per day FALSE- 1 quart, 800-1000ml
3 primary functions of the gallbladder: 1. store bile 2. concentrate bile 3. contract when stimulated
T/F concentrated levels of cholesterol in bile may lead to gallstone? TRUE
What is a common site for impaction, or lodging, of gallstones? Duodenal papilla
T/F in about 40% of individuals, the end of the common bile ducting the end of the pancreatic duct are totally separated into two ducts rather than combining into one single passageway into the duodenum TRUE
T/F an older term for the main pancreatic duct is the duct of vater False Answer: ampulla of vater
The gallbladder is located more__________(posteriorly or anteriorly) within the abdomen anteriorly
Cholecystocholangiography is the examination of the bile ducts
4 advantages of a gallbladder ultrasound instead of the outdated OCG procedure: 1. non-ionizing radiation 2. better detection of small calculi 3. no contrast 4. less patient prep
Which imaging modality produces cholescintigraphy? nuclear medicine
Cholelithiasis condition of having gallstones
Cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder
Biliary stenosis narrowing of the biliary ducts
Cholecystectomy surgical removal of the gallbaldder
7 major components of the alimentary canal 1. mouth 2. pharynx 3. esophagus 4. small intestine 5. large intestine 6. anus 7. stomach
4 accessory organs of digestion 1. salivary glands 2. liver 3. gallbladder 4. pancreas
3 primary functions of the digestive system intake absorption elimination
Choledocholithiasis enlargement or narrowing of the biliary ducts because of the process of stones
2 terms referring to a radiographic examination of the pharynx and esophagus esophagogram and barium swallow
Which term describes the radiographic study of the distal esophagus, stomach and duodenum? upper GI
Which 3 parts of the salivary glands are accessory organs of digestion associated with the mouth? 1. parotid 2. sublingual 3. submandibular
Act of swallowing deglutition
3 divisons of the pharynx 1. nasopharynx 2. oropharynx 3. Laryngopharynx
What structures create 2 indentations seen along the later boarder of the esophagus? 1. aortic arch 2. left primary bronchus
What part of the upper GI tract is a common site for ulcer disease ? duodenal bulb or cap
What term describes the junction between the duodenum and jejunum? duodenojejunal flexure
The c-loop of the duodenal and pancreas are ________(intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal) structures retroperitoneal
T/F the body of the stomach curves inferiorly and posteriorly from the fundus
Another term for a mucosal fold of the stomach is rugae
Peristaltic activity is NOT found in which of the following structures? a. pharynx b. Esophagus c. Stomach d. small intestine a. pharynx
Stomach contents are churned into a semifluid mass called: chyme
A churning or mixing activity present in the small bowel is called: rhythmic segmentation
Biologic catalyst that speed up the digestion process are called: enzymes
List the end products of digestion for the following classes of food: 1. Carbohydrates- 2. Lipids- 3. Proteins- 1. sugar 2. fatty acids or glycerol 3. amino acids
What is the name of the liquid substance that aids in digestion and is manufactured in the liver and stored in the gallbladder? bile
Absorption of nutrients primarily takes place in(a) _________, although some substances are absorbed through the lining of the (b)_________. a. small intestine b. stomach
Any residues of digestion or unabsorbed digestive products are eliminated from the _________ as a component of feces large bowel
Peristalsis is an example of which type digestion? mechanical
Which term describes food once it is mixed with gastric secretions in the stomach? chyme
A high and transverse stomach would be found in a(n)_______ patient hypersthenic
A j-shaped stomach that is more vertical and lower in the abdomen with the duodenal bulb at the level of L3-L4 would be found in a(n)__________ patient hypersthenic
On average, how much will abdominal organs drop in the erect position? 2.5-5 cm
Name the 2 abdominal organs most dramatically affected, in relation to location, by body habitus: gallbladder and large intestine
Would the fundus of the stomach be more superior or more inferior when one takes in a deep breath? inferior because of the proximity to the diaphragm
T/F with the use of digital fluoroscopy, the number of post fluoroscopy radiographs ordered has greatly diminished. TRUE
Another term for a negative contrast medium is __________. radiolucent
What substance is most commonly ingested to produce carbon dioxide gas as a negative contrast medium for gastrointestinal studies? CO2 gas crystals
What is the most common form of positive contrast medium used for studies of the gastrointestinal system? barium sulfate
Is a mixture of barium sulfate a suspension or a solution? suspension
T/F barium sulfate never dissolves in water TRUE
T/F certain salts of barium are poisonous to humans, so barium contrast studies require a pure sulfate salt of barium for human consumption during GI studies TRUE
What is the ratio of water to barium for a thin mixture of barium sulfate? 1 part barium to 1 part water
When is the use of barium sulfate contraindicated? if there is any chance the mixture might escape into peritoneal cavity
What patient condition prevents the use of water-soluble contrast medium for an upper GI? iodine sensitivity
What is the major advantage for using a double-contrast medium technique for esophagrams and upper GIs? providing better coating and visibility of mucosa
The speed with which barium sulfate passes through the GI tract is called gastric: motility
What is the purpose of the gas with a double-contrast medium technique forces barium against mucosa
Which of the following devices on a digital fluoroscopy system converts the analog into a digital signal? a. PACS b. light converter c. CCD d. OTS c. CCD
What device (found beneath the radiographic table when correctly positioned) greatly reduces the exposure to the technologist from the fluoroscopic X-ray tube? buck slot shield @ the far end of the table
What is the minimum level of protective apron worn during fluoroscopy? 0.5mm
What is the major benefit of using a compression paddle during an upper GI study? reduces exposure to the arms and hands of the radiologist
The 3 cardinal principles of radiation protection time, shielding and distance
Which one of the three cardinal principles is most effective in reducing exposure to the technologist during a fluoroscopic procedure? distance
4 advantaged or unique features and capabilities of digital fluoroscopy over conventional fluoroscopic recording systems: 1. multiple frames 2. cine loop capability 3. optimal post fluoro overhead image 4. image enhancement
Which capability on most digital fluoroscopy systems demonstrates dynamic flow of contrast media through the GI tract? cine loop placement
Dysphagia difficultly in swallowing
Barrett's esophagus replacement of normal squamous epithelium within columnar epithelium
Esophageal varices are extremely dilated sub-mucosal veins of the esophagus. They are most often a consequence of portal hypertension, commonly due to cirrhosis; patients with esophageal varices have a strong tendency to develop bleeding. may be secondary to cirrhosis of li
Zenker's diverticulum large outpouching of the esophagus
Achalasia also called cardiospasm, is a rare disease of the muscle of the lower esophageal body and the lower esophageal sphincter that prevents relaxation of the sphincter and an absence of contractions, or peristalsis, of the esophagus
Carcinoma of esophagus most common form is adenocarcinoma
Hiatal hernia portion of stomach protruding through the diaphragmatic opening
Gastric carcinoma double-contrast upper GI is recommended for this type of tumor
Bezoar undigested material trapped in stomach
Hematemesis blood in vomit
Gastritis Inflammation of lining of stomach
Perforating ulcer an ulcer extending through the wall of an organ & only 5% of ulcers lead to this condition
Peptic ulcer Synonymous with gastric or duodenal ulcer
Diverticula blind outpouching of the mucosal wall, weak spot
Which procedure is often performed to detect early signs of GERD? endoscopy
Which specific structure of the gastrointestinal system is affected by HPS? (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, lung infection) antral muscle
Which imaging modality is most effective in diagnosing HPS while reducing dose to the patient? ultrasound
NPO nothing by mouth
T/F the patient must be NPO for 4 to 6 hours before an esophagram false, 8 hours
T/F the esophagogram usually begins with fluoroscopy with the patient in the erect poison TRUE
What materials may be used for swallowing to aid in the diagnosis of radiolucent foreign bodies in the esophagus? barium soaked in cotton balls
The 4 radiographic tests that may be performed to detect signs of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) 1. water test 2. breathing exercises 3. compression technique 4. toe-touch maneuver
A breathing technique in which the patient takes in a deep breath and bears down is called the valsalva maneuver
What position is the patient usually placed in during the water test? LPO
Which region of the GI tract is better visualized when the radiologist uses a compression paddle during an esophagram? esophagogastric junction
What type of contrast medium should be used if the patient has a history of bowel perforation? oral, water-soluble iodine
What is the minimum amount of time that the patient should be NPO before an upper GI? 8 hours
Why should cigarette use and gum chewing be restricted before an upper GI? both increase gastric secretion
What hand does the patient usually hold the barium cup during the start of the upper GI? left
What type of fluoroscopy generator is recommended for pediatric procedures? pulsed, grid controlled fluoroscopy
Which one of the following modalities is an alternative to an esophagram in detecting esophageal varices? a. nuclear medicine b. computed tomography c. sonography d. endoscopy d. endoscopy
How much rotation of the body should be used for the RAO projection of the esophagus? 35 to 45 degrees
Why is the RAO preferred over the the LAO for the esophagram? the RAO places the esophagus between the vertical column and heart
Which optional position should be performed to demonstrate the upper esophagus located between the shoulders? optional swimmer lateral
The 3 most common routine projections for an esophagram are: RAO, Lateral, AP
Which aspect of the GI tract is best demonstrated with an RAO position during an upper GI? pylorus of stomach and c-loop
How much rotation of the body is required for the RAO position during an upper GI on a sthenic patient? 40 to 70 degrees
What is the average kV range for an esophagram and upper GI when using barium sulfate (single contrast study)? 100 to 125 kV
Which aspect of the upper GI tract will be filled with barium in the PA projection (prone position)? the body and pylorus of stomach and the duodenal bulb
What CR angle is required for the PA axial projection for a hypersthenic patient during an upper GI? 35 to 45 degrees cephalad
What is the recommended kV range for a double-contrast upper GI projection? 90 to 100 kV
The upper GI series usually begins with the table and patient in the ____________position upright or erect
The major parts of the stomach on an average patient are usually confined to which abdominal quadrant? LUQ
Most of the duodenum is usually found to the_______(right or left) of the midline on a sthenic patient right
T/F respiration should be suspended during inspiration for the upper GI projection FALSE
3 subdivisions of the stomach are body, fundus, pylorus
The 5 most common routine projections for an upper GI series are (not counting a possible AP scout projection): RAO,PA,AP,LPA, Right Lateral
GERD Gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, is a digestive disorder that affects the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the esophagus and stomach. Many people, including pregnant women, suffer from heartburn or acid indigestion because of GERD
Created by: Hmaeesomy