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PHARMACOLOGY

MODULE 1 KEY TERMS

TermDefinition
Absorption the movement of a drug into the bloodstream.
Adverse Effect any unexpected or dangerous reaction to a drug
Agonist a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response
bioavailability a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs
biotechnology the use of living cells and cell materials to research and produce pharmaceutical and diagnostic products that help treat and prevent human diseases
biotransformation chemical alteration of chemicals such as nutrients, amino acids, toxins, and drugs in the body
bolus the administration of a discrete amount of medication, drug or other compound in order to raise its concentration in blood to an effective level.
Contraindication a specific situation in which a drug, procedure, or surgery should not be used because it may be harmful to the person
distribution a branch of pharmacokinetics which describes the reversible transfer of a drug from one location to another within the body.
duration This is the period of time required for the concentration or amount of drug in the body to be reduced by one-half.
emulsion a thermodynamically unstable system consisting of at least two immiscible liquid phases one of which is dispersed as globules in the other liquid phase stabilized by a third substance called emulsifying agent
enteral administration involves the esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines
excretion process by which a drug is eliminated from an organism either in an unaltered form (unbound molecules) or modified as a metabolite
hypersensitivity An excessive or abnormal sensitivity to a substance
idiosyncratic effect are drug reactions that occur rarely and unpredictably amongst the population.
indication a condition which makes a particular treatment or procedure advisable
local effect The impact of a therapeutic agent on specific tissues rather than on the whole body, esp. on those tissues where the agent is absorbed, metabolized, or most chemically active.
onset the duration of time it takes for a drug's effects to come to prominence upon administration
parenteral Taken into the body or administered in a manner other than through the digestive tract, as by intravenous or intramuscular injection
pharmacodynamics Pharmacodynamics is the study of how a drug affects an organism, whereas pharmacokinetics is the study of how the organism affects the drug.
pharmacokinetics the study of the bodily absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs.
plasma protein binding A drug's efficiency may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within blood plasma
reconstituted The restitution or return to an original state of a substance, or combination of parts to make a whole
side effect an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended
solubility the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a homogeneous solution of the solute in the solvent.
solution a liquid preparation of one or more soluble chemical substances, which are usually dissolved in water.
suspension the state of a substance when its particles are mixed with but undissolved in a fluid or solidb
synergist an agent that increases the effectiveness of another agent when combined with it
systemic effect affecting the whole body, or at least multiple organ systems
topical something applied to the surface of the body
controlled substances a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government
narcotics a drug (as codeine, methadone, or morphine) that in moderate doses dulls the senses, relieves pain, and induces profound sleep but in excessive doses causes stupor, coma, or convulsions
DEA Drug Enforcement Administration
FDA The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments
The Joint Commission an independent, not-for-profit group in the United States that administers voluntary accreditation programs for hospitals and other healthcare organizations
OTC Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may only be sold to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
PDR Physicians' Desk Reference
USP-NF The United States Pharmacopeia and The National Formulary (USP–NF) is a book of public pharmacopeial standards for chemical and biological drug substances, dosage forms, compounded preparations, excipients, medical devices, and dietary supplements.
Created by: 634032013469358
 

 



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