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Neuro Exam 3

Postural Control

Posture Biomechanical alignment of the body. Orientation of the body to the environment
Postural Orientation Vertical for most fx tasks Active control of body alignment and tone with respect to gravity, support surface, visual environment, and internal references
Postural Control Complex motor skill based on the interaction of multiple dynamic sensorimotor processes involves controlling the position in space for the dual purpose of stability and orientation
Spatial Orientation Based on the interpretation of convergent sensory info from somatosensory, vestibular and visual systems
Postural Stability Coordination of sensorimotor strategies to stabilize the body's COM during self-initiated and externally triggered disturbances in postural stability ability to control the COM over the BOS
Postural Control: Cognitive Influences Anticipatory Postural control and Adaptive postural control
Anticipatory Postural control pretune sensory and motor systems for postural demand based on previous experience
Adaptive Postural Control Modification of the sensory and motor systems in response to changing task and environmental demands
Postural Control: Cognitive influences has 3 components Attention, Motivation, Intent
Postural Control: Systems Approach complex interactions among many bodily systems to control both orientation and stability of the body
Postural Control: Systems Approach organization Functional task and environment
Steady-State balance control ability to control the COM relative to the BOS predictable, non-changing conditions
Movement Strategies Stability limits, Ankle strategy, hip strategy
Stability limits Point at which a person will change the arrangement of their BOS to achieve stability. Impacted by cognitive, perceptual and nature of task
Ankle Strategy Used when perturbations in equilibrium are small. requires intact ROM and strength in the ankles. Leg and trunk segments move as a single unit
Hip Strategy Used to restore equilibrium in response to larger faster perturbations. Controls motion of the COM by producing large and rapid motions at the hip joint; antiphase rotations at the ankle. Leg and trunk segments move out of phase
Reactive Balance Control Ability to recover a stable position following a perturbation. Relies on feed back mechanisms, occurring in response to sensory feedback
Reactive Control Motor Patterns Fixed Support Change in Support Reach to grasp
Proactive / Anticipatory Balance Control Ability to activate muscles in the legs and trunk for balance control in advance of potentially destabilizing voluntary movements
Proactive Balance Control parameters Force is preprogrammed based on anticipation of what the task requires Anticipatory postural muscle activation is critical
Environmental Constraints Changes in support surfaces Differences in visual and surface conditions Multi-tasking
Sensory/Perception Systems Visual Inputs Somatosensory Inputs Vestibular Inputs Sensory Reweighting
Visual Inputs provides info about head position and motion with respect to surrounding objects Not always accurate important when using change in support strategies
Somatosensory Inputs Provides CNS with position and motion info about the body in relation to supporting surfaces not helpful with moving surfaces or surfaces that are not horizontal
Vestibular Inputs Provides CNS with info about the position and movement of the head in relation to gravity and inertial forces important in proactive balance - provide info about the task and environemnt
Sensory Reweighting Reliance on one sensory system for postural control increase while at the same time reliance on another sensory system decrease
Postural Impairments: Steady-State Balance Inability to assume and maintain a stable position. use of arms for support and balance which limits use of UE for functional tasks
Postural Impairment: Alignment Determines the effort required to support the body against gravity. Influences how muscles are recruited and coordinated for recovery of stability
Created by: brose020