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Research Terminology

NPTE Research & EBP

QuestionAnswer
Independent variable factor believed to bring about change in dependent variable. CAUSE or TREATMENT
Dependent variable change that results from the intervention (independent variable) OUTCOME
Research/directional hypothesis predicts expected relationship between variables
Null hypothesis states that no relationship exists between the variables. relationship found result of chance or sampling error
Null hypothesis accepted no significant difference observed
Null hypothesis rejected Signif difference was observed
Nominal data two or more mutually exclusive categories. male/female, tall/short
Ordinal data classifies and ranks in terms of the degree they possess a common characteristic. NOT equal intervals. GPA, MMT.
Interval data Ranks on predetermined EQUAL INTERVALS. NO true ZERO. IQ, F/C temp
Ratio data ranks based on EQUAL INTERVALS and TRUE ZERO POINT. most precise level of measurement. Goni, weight, force.
Random sampling all individuals in popn have equal chance of being chosen
Systematic sampliing selected from a popn by specified intervals
Stratified sampling Selected from a popn from identified subgroups (height, weight)
Double blind study subject & investigator not aware of group assignment
Effect size size of difference between sample means. Allows for a statistical test to find a difference when one really does exist.
Generalizability the degree to which findings apply to an entire popn
Gold Standard instrument with established validity that can be used as a standard fro assessing other instruments
Informed consent includes: info about general nature of study, any risks, what will be done to minimize risks, possible benefits, ethical disclosure.
Control group group resembling experiemental group that does not receive treatment
Intervening variable variable that alters the relationship between IND and DEP variables
Validity degree to which something accurately measures what it is supposed to
Internal validity degree observed differences in DEP variable are result of IND variable and not some other variable
External Validity Degree results are generalizable to popn or to environmental settings outside of study
Face Validity assumption of validity based on appearance of an instrument, psychometrically unsound
Content validity degree the instrument measures an intended content area - requires item & sampling validity
Concurrent validity degree scores on one test are related to scores on another criterion test, usu gold standard
Predictive validity degree test can predict future performance
Construct validity degree test measures an intended hypothetical abstract concept ( non-observable behaviors or ideas)
Sampling bias sampling error - sample of convenience, instead of randome selection
Learning effect pretest influences scores on post test
experimenter bias expectations of investigator influence results
Hawthorne effect subject's knowledge of participation in experiment influences results
Placebo effect subjects respond to a sham with positive effects
Reliability Degree a test consistently measures what it is intended to
Interrater reliability consistency of multiple raters
Intrarater reliabilatiy Individual's consistency in rating
Test-retest reliability scores on test are stable or consistent over time, measure of instrument stability.
Split half reliability degree of agreement when test split in half. measure of internal consistency of an instrument
Sensitivity correctly IDs TRUE POSITIVE
Specificity correctly IDs TRUE NEGATIVE
Predictive Value ability to estimate the likelihood that person will test positive or negative for a condition
Independent variable factor believed to bring about change in dependent variable. CAUSE or TREATMENT
Dependent variable change that results from the intervention (independent variable) OUTCOME
Research/directional hypothesis predicts expected relationship between variables
Null hypothesis states that no relationship exists between the variables. relationship found result of chance or sampling error
Null hypothesis accepted no significant difference observed
Null hypothesis rejected Signif difference was observed
Nominal data two or more mutually exclusive categories. male/female, tall/short
Ordinal data classifies and ranks in terms of the degree they possess a common characteristic. NOT equal intervals. GPA, MMT.
Interval data Ranks on predetermined EQUAL INTERVALS. NO true ZERO. IQ, F/C temp
Ratio data ranks based on EQUAL INTERVALS and TRUE ZERO POINT. most precise level of measurement. Goni, weight, force.
Random sampling all individuals in popn have equal chance of being chosen
Systematic sampliing selected from a popn by specified intervals
Stratified sampling Selected from a popn from identified subgroups (height, weight)
Double blind study subject & investigator not aware of group assignment
Effect size size of difference between sample means. Allows for a statistical test to find a difference when one really does exist.
Generalizability the degree to which findings apply to an entire popn
Gold Standard instrument with established validity that can be used as a standard fro assessing other instruments
Informed consent includes: info about general nature of study, any risks, what will be done to minimize risks, possible benefits, ethical disclosure.
Control group group resembling experiemental group that does not receive treatment
Intervening variable variable that alters the relationship between IND and DEP variables
Validity degree to which something accurately measures what it is supposed to
Internal validity degree observed differences in DEP variable are result of IND variable and not some other variable
External Validity Degree results are generalizable to popn or to environmental settings outside of study
Face Validity assumption of validity based on appearance of an instrument, psychometrically unsound
Content validity degree the instrument measures an intended content area - requires item & sampling validity
Concurrent validity degree scores on one test are related to scores on another criterion test, usu gold standard
Predictive validity degree test can predict future performance
Construct validity degree test measures an intended hypothetical abstract concept ( non-observable behaviors or ideas)
Sampling bias sampling error - sample of convenience, instead of randome selection
Learning effect pretest influences scores on post test
experimenter bias expectations of investigator influence results
Hawthorne effect subject's knowledge of participation in experiment influences results
Placebo effect subjects respond to a sham with positive effects
Reliability Degree a test consistently measures what it is intended to
Interrater reliability consistency of multiple raters
Intrarater reliabilatiy Individual's consistency in rating
Test-retest reliability scores on test are stable or consistent over time, measure of instrument stability.
Split half reliability degree of agreement when test split in half. measure of internal consistency of an instrument
Sensitivity correctly IDs TRUE POSITIVE
Specificity correctly IDs TRUE NEGATIVE
Predictive Value ability to estimate the likelihood that person will test positive or negative for a condition
Created by: Jenwithonen