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PT Assessment Final

QuestionAnswer
What are the four vital life functions? List in the order of priority. 1. Ventilation, 2. Oxygenation, 3. Circulation, 4. Perfusion
What is the most common cause of Jugular Vein Distension in COPD patients? Right heart failure (cor pulmonale)
What is capillary refill used to assess? Peripheral circulation
What causes barrel chest? Chronic air trapping
What is the normal AP diameter ratio? 1:2
What is the AP ration for a barrel chest patient? 1:1
Increased depth of breathing Hyperpnea
Normal breathing Eupnea
RR>20 Tachypnea
Fast deep respirations, with abrupt pauses Biot's
Breathing gradually increases then decreases in rate and depth, followed by periods of apnea Cheyne-Stokes
Cessation of breathing Apnea
Increased rate and depth of breathing. Usually associated with diabetic ketoacidosis Kussmaul's
Deep, gasping inspiration with brief, partial expiration Apneustic
Decreased depth of breathing Hypopnea
RR<12 Bradypnea
An infant shows signs of nasal flaring, grunting, and has intercostal retractions. What does this indicate? Respiratory distress
What are the primary muscles of ventilation? Diaphragm, external intercostals
What are the accessory muscles of inspiration? Scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis major, trapezius
What are the accessory muscles of expiration? Internal intercostals, rectus abdominals, transversus abdominals, obliques (internal and external)
What muscle(s) is/are used for passive expiration? None
Thick sputum Viscous
Hemoptysis Bright red
Clear and translucent sputum Normal
Pulmonary edema Pink and frothy
Mucus with pus (clear with yellow) Mucopurulent
Foul smelling sputum Fetid
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Green, foul smelling
Old blood in sputum Dark/ brown
WBCs in sputum, bacterial infection Yellow
Clear and thick sputum Mucoid
Stagnant sputum or gram-negative bacteria Green
Klebsiella pneumonia Red, jelly-like
Sticky, adhesive sputum Tenacious
Sputum that contains pus Purulent
Creaking leather sound caused by pleuritis Pleural friction rub
Vesicular sounds of low intensity in the lung periphery Diminished
Associated with atelectasis or secretions in the peripheral airways Crackles (rales)
Normally heard over mainstem bronchi Bronchovesicular
Hollow, tubular sound heard mainly over the trachea Bronchial
High pitched, continuous sounds with musical quality heard on inspiration and/or expiration; caused by bronchoconstriction Wheezing
Loud, high pitched crowing sound heard during inspiration caused by upper airway edema Stridor
Rustling sound heard throughout lung periphery Vesicular
Gurgling, bubbling sound caused by thick secretions in the large airways; usually clears with a cough Rhonchi
List the normal breath sounds Bronchial, vesicular, bronchovesicular
List the adventitious breath sounds Diminished, crackles (rales), rhonchi, wheezing, bronchial heard over lung periphery, pleural friction rub, stridor
What are two causes of tachycardia? Hypoxemia, stress/ anxiety
What are two causes of bradycardia? Heart failure, shock
At what point during the breath are fine crackles normally heard? End of inspiration
What are the common pulse sites and their locations? Radial (wrist, thumb side), brachial (bend of arm), carotid (neck), femoral (groin), apical (chest)
What is the normal value for Potassium? 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
What is the normal value for Bicarbonate? 22-26 mEq/L
What is the normal value for Chloride? 80-100 mEq/L
What is the normal value for Sodium? 135-145 mEq/L
What is the normal value for RBCs? 4-6 million/mm3
What is the normal value for WBCs? 5k-10k/mm3
What is the normal value for Hemoglobin (Hgb)? 12-16g/dL
What is the normal value for Hematocrit (Hct)? 40-50%
What is the normal value for Platelets? 150k-400k/mm3
What is the normal value for SpO2? 93-97%
What is the normal HR? 60-100 BPM
What is the normal RR? 12-20 BPM
What is the normal blood pressure? 120/80 mmHg
What is the normal body temp? 37* C (98.6* F)
What type of chest pain is centrally located and constant? Non-pleuritic
What type of chest pain is typically increased on inspiration? Pleuritic
What type of chest pain is associated with Pleuritis? Pleuritic
What type of chest pain is associated with Pneumothorax? Pleuritic
What type of chest pain is associated with Pericardial inflammation? Non-pleuritic
What type of chest pain is associated with Myocardial infarction? Non-pleuritic
What type of chest pain is associated with pleural effusion? Pleuritic
What conditions increase the intensity and clarity of vocal fremitus, as with bronchophony and whispered pectoriloquy? Pneumonia, consolidation
In normal lungs, the phrase "ninety nine" or "blue moon" would sound Muffled
In normal lungs, the phrase "1,2,3", when whispered would sound Muffled
With egophany, what condition would change an "ee" sound to an "ay" sound similar to a bleating goat? Consolidation, pneumonia
What conditions would decrease vocal fremitus? Obstructed bronchi, pneumothorax, emphysema
What conditions decrease tactile fremitus? Large pleural effusion, large pneumothorax, hyperinflation (air trapping), atelectasis
What conditions increase tactile fremitus? Pneumonia
Difficult breathing while lying down Orthopnea
General term used for difficult breathing Dyspnea
Profuse sweating Diaphoresis
Excess fluid in the tissues Peripheral edema
Above normal body temp Hyperthermia
Below normal body temp Hypothermia
General run down feeling Malaise
Enlargement of terminal phalanges of fingers and toes due to chronic hypoxemia Digital clubbing
Unequal expansion of the chest Asymmetrical
Both side of the chest moving evenly Symmetrical
What percussion note would you hear over trapped gas in the lungs or in the pleural space? Resonance
What percussion note would you hear over atelectasis or consolidation? Dullness
What percussion note would you heard over fluid in the pleural space? Dullness
What type of cyanosis is seen in the nailbeds of the fingers and toes? Peripheral
What type of cyanosis is seen in the oral mucosa and is urgent? Central
Name three things that may cause an irregular pulse Inadequate blood flow, inadequate O2 supply to the heart, electrolyte imbalance
Breathing air in and out of the lungs Ventilation
How would you measure ventilation? RR, tidal volume, chest movement, breath sounds
Getting oxygen into the blood Oxygenation
How would you measure oxygenation? HR, color, sensorium (consciousness)
Moving blood through the body Circulation
How would you measure circulation? HR, pulse strength
Getting blood into the tissues (into the capillary beds) Perfusion
How would you measure perfusion? BP, sensorium, temp
Your patient smoked 2 packs/day for 30 years. What is their pack year history? 60
What causes an increase in WBCs? Bacterial infection
What type of WBC is elevated with asthma and allergic reactions? Eosinophils
Describe the pulse strength for normal HR and blood volume Strong, throbbing
Describe the pulse strength for weak contraction and low blood volume Weak, thready
Describe the pulse strength for an increased HR and large volume Full, bounding
The rhythm of the pulse can be described as ______________ or ______________. Regular or Irregular
A pulse rate greater than 100 BPM Tachycardia
A pulse rate less than 60 BPM Bradycardia
Where can Bronchial (tracheal) breath sounds be heard? Ausculated of the trachea
Where can vesicular breath sounds be heard? Over most of the lung surface
Where can bronchovesicular breath sounds be heard? Anterior: Heard over mainstem bronchi between first and second ribs / Posterior: Heard between the scapulae near the spinal column between the first and sixth ribs; especially on the right side
What causes adventitious bronchial breath sounds? Consolidation or atelectasis
What causes diminished breath sounds? Patients who move a lower air volume, obese patients, or muscular patients
What causes crackles (rales) breath sounds? Atelectasis, fibrosis, pulmonary edema, pneumonia
What causes rhonchi breath sounds? Severe pneumonia or bronchitis
What causes wheezing breath sounds? Bronchoconstriction (bronchospasm), asthma
What causes pleural friction rub breath sounds? Pleurisy (pleuritis), pneumonia
What causes stridor breath sounds? Upper airway narrowing or obstruction
What color would air appear on an x-ray? Black
What color would bone appear on an x-ray? White
Regarding x-ray, what does translucent mean? Darker areas of the x-ray
Regarding x-ray, what does opaque mean? White
What would you ask to determine a patient's sensorium or LOC? Date, location, name, situation
What is pectus excavatum? AKA funnel chest; sternum caves in
What is pectus carinatum? AKA pigeon chest; protrusion of the sternum
What is pedal edema? Swelling of the lower extremities
What is subcutaneous emphysema? Crepitus; coarse, crackling sensation that may be palpable over the skin surface
What is the max time for capillary refill to be considered normal? 2 seconds
Created by: ashconrad417