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PT Assessment Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
What are the four vital life functions? List by order of priority 1. Ventilation, 2. Oxygenation, 3. Circulation, 4. Perfusion
What is the most common cause of Jugular Vein Distention in COPD patients? Right heart failure (cor pulmonale)
What is capillary refill used to assess? Peripheral circulation
What causes barrel chest? Chronic air trapping
What is the normal AP diameter ratio? 1:2
What is the AP ratio for a barrel chest patient? 1:1
Increased depth of breathing Hyperpnea
Normal breathing Eupnea
RR>20 Tachypnea
Fast, deep respirations with abrupt pauses Biot's
Breathing gradually increases then decreases in rate and depth, followed by period of apnea Cheyne-Stokes
Cessation of breathing Apnea
Increased rate and depth of breathing; usually associated with diabetic ketoacidosis Kussmaul's
Deep, gasping inspiration with brief, partial expiration Apneustic
Decreased depth of breathing Hypopnea
RR<12 Bradypnea
An infant shows signs of nasal flaring, grunting, and has intercostal retractions. What does this indicate? Respiratory distress
What are the primary muscles of ventilation? Diaphragm and External Intercostals
What are the accessory muscles of inspiration? Scalenes, Sternocleidomastoid, Pectoralis Major, Trapezius
What are the accessory muscles of expiration? Internal Intercostals, Rectus Abdominal, Transversus Abdominals, Obliques (External and Internal)
What muscle(s) is/are used for passive expiration? None
Thick sputum Viscous
Hemoptysis Bright red
Clear and translucent sputum Normal
Pulmonary edema Pink and frothy
Mucus with pus (clear with yellow) Mucopurulent
Foul smelling sputum Fetid
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Green, foul smelling
Old blood in sputum Brown/ dark
WBCs in sputum, bacterial infection Yellow
Clear and thick sputum Mucoid
Stagnant sputum or gram negative bacteria Green
Klebsiella pneumonia Red, jelly like
Stick, adhesive sputum Tenacious
Sputum containing pus Purulent
Creaking leather sound caused by pleuritis Pleural friction rub
Vesicular sounds of low intensity in the lung periphery Diminished
Associated with atelectasis or secretions in the peripheral airways Crackles (rales)
Normally heard over the mainstem bronchi Bronchovesicular
Hollow, tubular sound heard mainly over the trachea Bronchial (Tracheal)
High pitched, continuous sounds with a musical quality heard on inspiration and/or expiration; caused by bronchoconstriction Wheezing
Loud, high pitched crowing sound heard during inspiration caused by upper airway edema Stridor
Rustling sound heard throughout lung periphery Vesicular
Gurgling, bubbling sound caused by thick secretions in the large airways; usually clears with a cough Rhonchi
List two causes of tachycardia Hypoxemia, stress/ anxiety
List two causes of bradycardia Heart failure, shock
List the normal breath sounds Brachial, Vesicular, Bronchovesicular
List the adventitious breath sounds Diminished, Crackles (rales), Rhonchi, Wheezing, Bronchial heard over lung periphery, Pleural friction rub, Stridor
At what point during the breath are fine crackles normally heard? End of inspiration
List the common pulse sites and their locations Radial (wrist, thumb side), Brachial (bend of the arm), Carotid (neck), Femoral (groin), Apical (chest)
What is the normal value for Potassium? 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
What is the normal value for Bicarbonate? 22-26 mEq/L
What is the normal value for Chloride? 80-100 mEq/L
What is the normal value for Sodium? 135-145 mEq/L
What is the normal value for RBCs? 4-6 million/ mm3
What is the normal value for WBCs? 5k-10k/ mm3
What is the normal value for Hemoglobin (Hgb)? 12-16g/dL
What is the normal value for Hematocrit (Hct)? 40-50%
What is the normal value for Platelets? 150k-400k/ mm3
What is the normal value for SpO2? 93-97%
What is the normal HR? 60-100 BPM
What is the normal RR? 12-20 BPM
What is the normal blood pressure? 120/80 mmHg
What is the normal body temperature? 37* C (98.6* F)
What type of chest pain is centrally located and constant? Non-pleuritic
What type of chest pain is typically increased on inspiration? Pleuritic
What type of chest pain is associated with Pleuritis? Pleuritic
What type of chest pain is associated with Pneumothorax? Pleuritic
What type of chest pain is associated with Pericardial inflammation? Non-pleuritic
What type of chest pain is associated with Myocardial Infarction? Non-pleuritic
What type of chest pain is associated with Pleural effusion? Pleuritic
What conditions increase the intensity and clarity of vocal fermitus, as with bronchophony and whispered pectoriolquy? Consolidation, pneumonia
In normal lungs, the phrase "ninety nine" or "blue moon" would sound Muffled
In normal lungs, the phrase "1,2,3", when whispered would sound Muffled
With egophany, what condition would change an "ee" sound to an "ay" sound, similar to bleating a goat? Consolidation, pneumonia
What conditions would decrease vocal fremitus? Obstructed bronchi, pneumothorax, emphysema
What conditions decrease tactile fremitus? Large pleural effusion, large pneumothorax, hyperinflation (air trapping), atelectasis
What conditions increase tactile fremitus? Pneumonia
Difficulty breathing while lying down Orthopnea
General term for difficulty breathing Dyspnea
Profuse sweating Diaphoresis
Excess fluid in the tissues Peripheral edema
Above normal body temp Hyperthermia
Below normal body temp Hypothermia
General run down feeling Malaise
Enlargement of terminal phalanges of fingers and toes due to chronic hypoxemia Digital clubbing
Unequal expansion of the chest Asymmetrical
Both sides of the chest move evenly Symmetrical
What percussion note would you hear over trapped gas in the lungs or in the pleural space? Hyperresonance
What percussion note would you hear over normal lung tissue? Resonance
What percussion note would you hear over atelectasis or consolidation? Dullness
What percussion note would you hear over fluid in the pleural space? Dullness
What type of cyanosis is seen in the nailbeds of the fingers and toes? Peripheral
What type of cyanosis is seen in the oral mucosa and is urgent? Central
Name three things that might cause an irregular pulse Inadequate blood flow, inadequate O2 supply to the heart, electrolyte imbalance
Created by: ashconrad417