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PTA EXAM FINAL

PTA EXAM FINAL PIECES

TermDefinition
Tamponade compression of heart due to increased fluid in paricardial sac
Asthenia abnormal physical weakness or lack of energy; secondary to cerebellar pathology
Anemia Decrease in RBC's/hemoglobin; increased fatigue and pallor
Leukemia malignant, progressive disease; bone marrow produces immature or abnormal leukocytes; leads to anemia and decreased immune function
Dialysis Frequency 3x per week for 4 hours
Blood Pressure Measurements Normal - 120/80 Pre - 120-139/80-89 Stage 1 Hyper - 140-159/90-99 Stage 2Hyper - >160/>100
Serum Cholesterol Total - <200 - desirable; >240 High LDL - <100 optimal; >190 Very High HDL - <40 low; >60 high Triglycerides - <150 desirable; >500 Very High
Maceration Softening of skin due to prolonged moisture
Clonus Mm spasm involving repeated painful contractions precipitated by quick stretch; upper motor neuron lesion;
Akinesia Inability to initiate movement; Parkinson's
Athetosis involuntary movement combined with instability of posture; peripheral movement occurs without central involvement
Chorea Movements that are sudden, random and involuntary
Dysmetria Inability to control ROM and force of mm activity
Dystonia similar to athetosis but involves larger axial mm's
Ankylosing Spondylitis Inflammatory arthritis affecting vertebrae and large joints; decreased lordosis, increased kyphosis
Testing Vestibular System Examine balance with movement of head; Dix Haulpike; bi-thermal caloric testing; nystagmus testing; head thrust sign (manual head turning); vestibuloocullar reflex (coordination of head/eye movement
Rheumatoid Arthritis autoimmune inflammatory connective tissue disorder; peripheral to central; effects synovial membranes
Ultrasound Indications acute and post acute (non thermal); calcium deposits; chronic inflammation; delayed soft tissue healing; dermal ulcers; joint contracture; mm spasms; myofascial trigger points; pain; plantar warts; scar tissue; tissue regeneration
Ultrasound perimeters Intensity - W/cm^2 Frequency - MHz Duty cycle - %
NMES Increases mm activity; helps with denervated mm
Functional Electrical Stimulation Increases neuro-muscular activity during functional movement; electrodes place parallel to mm fibers; 1 over motor point; min 2 inches apart
Romberg Test Used to diagnose sensory ataxia; feet together, arms across chest, eyes open and then closed; score is based on time with eyes closed
MET's Metabolic Equivalent Light <3 Moderate 3-6 Vigorous 7-10
TENS -Acute and chronic pain management; conventional; acupuncture like; Brief intense; Noxious
Interferential Current Biphasic; 2 leads; pain relief, circulation and mm stimulation; usually comfortable
Iontophoresis Meds - Positive Copper Sulfate - Fungal infection Lidocaine - Analgesia; inflammation Magnesium Sulfate - mm spasms ischemia Zinc oxide - healing, dermal ulcers, wounds
Iontophoresis Meds - Negative Acetic acid - calcific deposits; myositis ossificans Calcium chloride - scar tissue; keloids; mm spasms Dexamethasone - inflammation Iodine - scars, adhesive capsulitis Salicylates - mm and joint pain; plantar warts
Left Cerebral Hemisphere Function Language - understand it, produce written and spoken; sequence/performance of movement; analytical, controlled, logical, rational, mathematical calculations, express positive emotions, process verbally coded info; Broca's typically
Right Cerebral Hemisphere Function Nonverbal processing; process info holistically, artistic, general concept comprehension, hand eye coordination, spatial relationships, kinesthetic awareness, understand music, mathematical reasoning, express negative emotions, body image/self awareness
Frontal Lobe Function Voluntary movement; intellect; orientation; Broca's area - speech and concentration; personality, temper, judgement, reasoning, behavior, self awareness, executive functions
Frontal Lobe Impairment Contralateral weakness, perseveration, inattention, personality changes, antisocial, impaired concentration, apathy, Broca's aphasia (expressive deficits), delayed/poor initiation, emotional lability
Parietal Lobe Function Associated with touch, kinesthesia, perception of vibration, and temp; receives info from other areas about hearing, vision, motor, sensory and memory; provides meaning to objects, interprets language and words, spacial visual perception
Parietal Lobe Impairment Dominant hemisphere (typically left) agraphia, alexia, agnosia; non dominant hemisphere dressing apraxia, constructional apraxia and anosognosia; contralateral sensory deficits; impaired language comprehension; impaired taste
Temporal Lobe Function Primary auditory and olfaction processing; Wernicke's (typically left) - ability to understand and produce meaningful speech, verbal and general memory, assists with understanding language; interpret others' emotions and reactions
Temporal Lobe Impairment Learning deficits; Wernicke's (receptive aphasia), anti social/aggressive behavior; difficulty with facial recognition and memory; inability to categorize
Occipital Lobe Function Visual info; colors, light ans shapes, judgement of distance; 3D
Occipital Lobe Impairment Homonymous hemianopsia; Impaired eye mm movement; visual deficits; impaired color recognition; reading and writing impairments; cortical blindness
Thalamus Relay/processing center for most info that goes to cerebrum; Coordinates sensory perception and movement except olfaction
Hypothalamus Receives and integrates info from autonomic nervous system and regulates hormones; Controls hunger, thirst, sexuality, sleep; body temp; adrenals; pituitary, etc.
Subthalamus Important for regulating skeletal mm movement
Epithalamus AKA Pineal gland; Secretes melatonin; involved in circadian rhythms, internal clock, select motor pathways, and emotions
Cerebellum Function Fine tuning of movement; Assists with maintaining posture and balance by mm tone and extremity positioning; controls repid alternating movements
Cerebellum Impairment Ipsilateral impairments; ataxia, nystagmus, tremor, hypermetria, poor coordination, and deficits of postural reflexes, balance and equilibrium
Medulla Oblongata Influences autonomic nervous activity; regulation of respiration and HR; reflex centers for vomiting, coughing, and sneezing; contralateral motor impairments
Saltatory Conduction action potential jumping from node to node; increases speed and decreases use of sodium/potassium pumps
A Peripheral Nerve Fibers Large; myelinated; high conduction rate; alpha, beta, gamma and delta
B Peripheral Nerve Fibers Medium size; Myelinated; reasonably fast conduction; pre ganglionic fibers of autonomic NS
C Peripheral Nerve Fibers Small; poorly or un myelinated; slowed conductions; Post ganglionic fibers of sympathetic NS; exteroceptors for pain, temp and touch
Upper Motor Neuron Diseases (UMND) Cerebral palsy, hydrocephalus, ALS, CVA, birth injuries, MS, Huntington's, TBI, Pseudobulbar palsy; brain tumors
Lower Motor Neuron Diseases (LMND) Poliomyelitis; ALS; Guillian Barre; spinal cord tumors, trauma, progressive mm atrophy, infection, Bell's palsy, carpal tunnel, mm dystrophy, spinal mm atrophy
UMND Characteristics Weakness of involved mm's; hypertonicity; hyperreflexia; mild disuse atrophy; abnormal reflexes (injury occurs in lateral white column of spinal cord)
LMND Characteristics Flaccidity or weakness of involved mm's; decreased tone; fasciculations; mm atrophy; decreased or absent reflexes
Fluent Aphasia Often involves Temporal lobe, Wernicke's area or parietal lobe; Word and speech production are functional; prosody (vocal patterns) and acceptable but emptyspeech; lacks substance; word substitutions/nonsense
Non Fluent Aphasia Often involves frontal lobe; poor word output and prosody; poor articulation; increased effort for speech
Broca's Aphasia Frontal lobe lesion; non fluent; expressive; most common; in tact auditory and reading comprehension; impaired repetition and naming skills; frustration with errors; paraphasias; motor impairments
Wernicke's Aphasia Temporal lobe lesion; fluent; receptive; Reading and auditory comprehension impaired; good articulation with use pf paraphasias; impaired writing and naming
Global Aphasia Non fluent; Severe comprehension and reading impairment; impaired naming, writing and repetition; may involuntarily verbalize; may use non verbal skills for coms
Dysarthria Motor disorder of speech; upper motor neuron lesion that affects the mm's that are used to articulate words and sounds; speech is slurred and may affect respiration
Brunnstrum Movement Therapy 7 levels; works with limb synergies; worst to better
Constructional Apraxia Inability to reproduce geometric shapes and signs
Ideational Apraxia Inability to initiate motor plan/sequence where proprioceptive input is impaired
Ideomotor Apraxia Automatic movement may occur but no conscious additional movement can occur
Perseveration Uncontrolled repeating
Anterior Cord Syndrome Incomplete lesion; Damage to anterior spinal cord or artery; usually occurs with cervical flexion; loss of motor function, pain and temp sense; damage to corticospinal and spinothalamic tracts
Brown Sequard's Syndrome Incomplete lesion; paralysis, loss of vibratory and position sense ipsilaterally; loss of pain and temp sense contra laterally
Cauda Equina Injuries Below L1; considered peripheral nerve injury; flaccidity, areflexia, impairment of bowel and bladder function
Central Cord Injuries Incomplete lesion; compression and damage to central spinal cord; cervical hyperextension; Motor deficits in upper more than lower extremities
Posterior Cord Injuries Rare; incomplete lesion; compression of posterior spinal artery; loss of proprioception, 2 point discrimination and sterognosis; motor funciton is preserved
ASIA Impairment Scale A - Complete B - Sensory incomplete C - Motor Incomplete <3/5 MMT D - Motor Incomplete >3/5 MMT E - Normal
Ranchos Los Amigos Cognitive Function Scale 8 levels; worse to better
Glasgow coma Scale 3-15; 3 sections worth points; Worse to better
Agraphia Inability to write; usually coupled with aphasia
Alexia Inability to see words or write
Agnosia Inability to interpret info
Anosognosia Unawareness of illness
Hypermetria Cerebellar damage; extremity movement beyond intended position
Hyperreflexia Over active or over responsive reflex
Paraphasia Words are jumbled and sentences are meaningless
Areflexia Absence of reflexes
Hyperplasia Enlargement of an organ, often as initial stages of cancer
Arterial Line is Used to Measure BP
Created by: ashleighobrien