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Pharmacology Final

QuestionAnswer
What is the ultra short acting sympathomimetic drug? Racemic epinephrine
What is the primary indication for racemic epinephrine? Upper airway edema
Is racemic epinephrine a maintenance or a rescue drug? Rescue
What are the short acting beta adrenergic drugs? Levalbuterol (xopenex), albuterol (ventolin, proventil), metaproterenol
What is the primary indication for SABAs? Relief of acute upper airway obstruction
Are SABAs rescue or maintenance drugs? Rescue
What is the mode of action for SABAs? Breakdown ATP to cAMP for bronchodilation
List the LABAs Salmeterol (serevent diskus), arformoterol (brovana), formoterol (foradil), indacaterol (arcapta neohaler), and olodaterol (striverdi respimat)
What is the primary indication for LABAs? Maintenance and control of bronchospasm
Are LABAs rescue or maintenance drugs? Maintenance
What is the mode of action for LABAs? Bronchodilation
List the anti cholinergic drugs Ipratropium bromide (atrovent), tiotropium bromide (spiriva), oxitropium bromide (oxivent), aclidium bromide (tudorza pressair), and umecidium bromide (incruse ellipta)
What is the primary indication for anti cholinergic drugs? Maintenance and control of bronchospasm
Are anti cholinergic drugs maintenance or rescue drugs? Maintenance
What is the mode of action for anti cholinergic drugs? Bronchodilation of the large airways by decreasing cGMP
List the xanthines Theophylline (Theo-dur), aminophylline, and caffeine citrate (Cafcit)
What is the mode of action for xanthines? Inhibits phosphodiesterase
List the aerosolized corticosteroids Fluticasone (Flovent), beclomethasone (QVAR), flunisolide (Aerospan), budesonide (DPI: pulmicort flexhaler, SVN: pulmicort respules), mometasone, ciclesonide
What is the primary indication for aerosolized corticosteroids? Pulmonary edema
Are aerosolized corticosteroids rescue or maintenance drugs? Maintenance
List the systemic corticosteroids Prednisone, methylprednisone (Solu-medrol)
Are systemic corticosteroids rescue or maintenance drugs? Maintenance
List the leukotriene modifiers Montelukast (singulair), Zafirlukast (Accolate), and Zileuton (Zyflo)
What is the primary indication for leukotriene modifiers? Prophylactic management of persistent asthma
Are leukotriene modifiers maintenance or rescue drugs? Maintenance
What is the mode of action for leukotriene modifiers? Blocks leukotrienes
What drug is used to treat asthma prophylactically by preventing mast cell degranulation? Cromolyn Sodium
List the mucolytic drug that comes in 10% and 20% strengths N-Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)
What is the primary indication for Mucomyst (N-Acetylcysteine)? Thick, viscous, or inspissated secretions
What is the mode of action for Mucomyst (N-Acetylcysteine)? Reduces viscosity by breaking disulfide bonds
What type of drug should be given prior to administering Mucomyst (N-Acetylcysteine)? Bronchodilator
What is the mucolytic used for cystic fibrosis patients? Dornase Alfa
What is the mode of action for Dornase Alfa? Hydrolyze DNA is sputum and reduces viscosity
List the surfactants Beractant (Survanta), Calfactant (Infasurf), and Poractant (Curosurf)
What is the primary indication for surfacts? Prevent alveolar collapse
What should be done if your patient has adverse side effects while taking a breathing treatment? Stop the treatment
What should be done if your patient has an elevated HR (above normal) prior to treatment? Find the cause of the tachycardia before beginning treatment
What should be done if your patients HR increases more than 20 bpm during the treatment? Stop the treatment
What are the two causes of upper airway edema? Croup and post extubation stridor
What xanthine is used to treat premature apnea of the newborn? Caffeine Citrate (CafCit)
What does the autonomic nervous system control? Automatic and unconscious functions
What does the somatic nervous system control? Voluntary movements/ skeletal muscle
What anti-fungal is used to treat oral thrush? Nystatin
What anti-fungal is used to treat Histoplasmosis, Blastomycosis, and Coccidiodomycosis? Amphotericin B
What pediatric dosage rule is used if we know the patient's weight? Clark's
How can you tell if an MDI is empty? Place in a bowl of water, if empty the MDI will float on its side
How many puffs are in the average MDI? 200 puffs
List ALL the drugs used to treat TB Isoniazid (INH), Rifampin, Rifabutin, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol, and Streptomycin
What is the effect of stimulation to the Alpha receptor? Vasoconstriction, increased BP
What is the effect of stimulation to the Beta 1 receptor? Increased HR and force
What is the effect of stimulation to the Beta 2 receptor? Broncodilation
What is the dosage for albuterol? 0.5 mL of a 0.5% solution (2.5 mg) Q4-Q6
What is the dosage for levalbuterol (Xopenex)? 0.63 mg/3 mL TID or 1.25mg/ 3 mL TID
What is the dosage for Racemic Epinephrine? 0.25 mL of a 2.25% solution QID (SVN)
What is the dosage for Ipratropium Bromide? SVN: 500 mcg TID, QID
What is the loop diuretic? Furosemide (Lasix)
What is the primary indication for Furosemide (Lasix)? Pulmonary edema
What is the osmotic diuretic? Mannitol (Osmitrol)
What is the primary indication for Mannitol (Osmitrol) Cerebral edema
What drug is used to treat RSV? Ribavirin (Virazole)
What nebulizer is used to administer Ribavirin (Virazole)? SPAG II
What drug is used to treat influenza within the first couple days of symptoms? Zanamivir (Relenza)
What drug is used to treat Pneumcystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients? Pentamidine
What nebulizer is used to administer Pentamidine? Respigard II
What antibiotic drug is used to treat pseudomonas aeruginosa in CF patients? Tobramycin
What neuromuscular blocker is used for intubation? Succinylcholine
What other types of drugs must be given with a neuromuscular blocker? Sedative for anxiety and analgesics for pain
List the signs of a bacterial infection Fever, chills, yellow/green sputum, and increased WBC
What type of infection is penicillin used to treat? Gram positive
What type of infection is garamycin used to treat? Gram negative
What are NSAIDs used to treat? Mild to moderate pain
What is the most common adverse side effect of NSAIDs? GI tract irritation
What class of drugs is commonly used to treat anxiety? Benzodiazepines
List the brand names of benzodiazepines Valium, ativan, xanax, versed, and klonopin
What drug is used to treat MRSA? Vancomycin
Why is a spacer/reservoir used with an MDI? Improves medication delivery and effectiveness
Which local anesthetic may be used for bronchoscopy? Lidocaine
Created by: ashconrad417